References to Chapter 11:
1. 'Without demand there is no supply'. Advertisement paid for by the Government of Colombia, Washington Post, October 14,1988, page A22. For a more sophisticated statement, consider the words of President Julio Maria Sanguinetti of
at the opening of a meeting of seven Latin American Presidents. The key factor of consumption of drugs',
said as reported in the Washington Post, 'springs from deep-seated
societal issues that will not easily be resolved'. Eugene Robinson, Washington Post, October 12 1989, page A35. Uruguay
2. Data taken from 'Drug Dependent Deaths Reported in
from 1923 to 1984', Communi- New York City
cation from the Department of Health,
, September 14,1988. New York City
3. Gabriel G. Nahas, The Decline of Drugged Nations', Wall Street Journal, July 11,1988.
4. This is a
intelligence estimate of Soviet active measures expenditures circa 1979. However, given
limited knowledge by US
of Soviet active measures, for example, narcotics operations, the $3
billion figure is probably a gross underestimate. US
5. One of the most pernicious political movements - supported, if not created, by Soviet-directed pro-
paganda and active measures - is the drug (particularly marijuana) legalisation movement. As reported by Candlin, a meeting was organised by the Comintern in
in 1934 to disseminate information on the use
marijuana as a conditioning medium for riots and revolutionary activity. The principal speaker explained the virtues of marijuana as a 'valued weapon in the Red arsenal' and described
its experimental use in New York and the need for valuable revolutionary cadres to avoid excessive
use of the drug. At that meeting, speakers rose and Mexico
'propounded a long-range campaign to arrange legal acceptance of marijuana and other similar drugs, using as
an argument the right to freedom of individual choice. Some elements present -left-wing doctors, lawyers, news media representatives, and even clergy - were urged to get a coordinated campaign running in which the public would be urged to accept and legalise the drug'. Psycho-Chemical Warfare: The Chinese Communist Drug Offensive Against the West, op. cit, pages 45-48. See also the quotation from the 1966 secret resolution on page 28 (Chapter 3).
6. C. W. Sheppard, G. R. Gay and D. E. Smith, The Changing Patterns of Heroin Addiction in the Haight-
Ashbury Subculture', Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, Spring 1971, page 23. Copyright 1971 by the Journal of Psychedelic Drugs. Reprinted with permission. Data for 1969 and 1970 is omitted because of their proximity to the collection date.
May Become No. I Drug Exporter', Insight, July 25,1988, page 37, citing O Globo, June 26,1988. Brazil
8. Earlston Spencer, 'Subverting
Jamaica', National Committee To Restore Internal Security, Houston
Hearing, September 29,1980, pages 29-34.
9. Crack Cocaine Overview 1989, op. cit., page 7.
10. Interview with Carlos Lehder, Uri Ra'anan et al., Hydra of Carnage (Lexington, Massachusetts: Lex- ington Books, 1986). page 434.
11. Hearing to Receive Testimony on Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy:
, February Panama
11.1988, op. cit., pages 88,97.
12. James M. Dorsey, '12 Killed in
Medellin by Bomb, Despite Curfew', Times, September Washington
1,1989, page A1.
US Official Says North Korean Farmers Ordered to Grow Drugs', Tribune, February New York City
21,1990, page 6.
14. "Western Intelligence' Links Honecker to Drugs', Hamburg BILD, reported in Foreign Broadcast
Information Service, FBIS-EEU-89-233, December 6,1989, page 40.
15. In one of the largest heroin smuggling cases on record, Manuel Dominguez Suarez, a one-time head of the Mexican Federal Judicial Police, was arrested on May 7,1970 in
. He had made nine trips to East Berlin, each time returning to San Antonio,
Texas Mexico with fifty kilograms of heroin, which were then moved across
border into the . Suarez received special treatment
when he entered United
States East Berlin - his passport
never stamped. He had been recruited by a Pole with East German connections. World drug-traffic and Its Impact on U S. Security, op.
cit., Part 4, page 157.
16. After DEA information was leaked to the press in March 1989 on the active involvement of Bulgaria in drug refining, trafficking and money-laundering, all in contradiction to the State Department's report to Congress on March 1, the State Department confirmed the DEA's data and said: 'It is the intention of the US Government to present the facts to the Bulgarian Government for whatever remedial action appears warranted', which is probably as far as the matter will have gone. After all, an 'intention' need never be realised in practice. Bill Gertz,
'State Confirms Bulgarian Company's Drug Ties', Washington Times, April 7, 1989, page A6.
17. Bill Gertz, 'Cuban Officers' Arrests Linked to Drugs', Washington Times, June 19,1989, page A3; Gilles Trequesser, 'Cuban General Arrested for Treason Could Face Firing Squad', Washington Times, June
20.1989, page A11; Giles Trequesser, 'Cuban Officials Pledge Crackdown on Drugs', Washington Times, June
23,1989, page A11; Julia Preston, 'Cuba Details Drug Deals', Washington Post, June 23,1989, page A27;
Michael Hedges, 'Drug Trial Testimony Forced Castro's Hand, Officials Believe',
Times, June 26, Washington
1989, page A7; Mark A. Uhlig, 'Raul Castro Adds Sparks to Cuban Trial', New York Times, June 27,1989, page A3; Alfredo Munoz-Unsain, 'Firing Squad Likely for Cuban General in Drug-trafficking', Washington Times, June 27,1989, page A9; Julia Preston, 'Castro Fires Top Official For Security', Washington Post, June 30,
1989, page A25; Julia Preston, 'Cuba Sentences Officers to Death for Corruption', Washington Post, July 8,
1989, page A1; and 'Cuba Executes Convicted Officers', Washington Post, July 14,1989, page A24.
CHAPTER 11: Fixing the Responsibility 151
18. Hearing to Receive Testimony on Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy:
Before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations of the Committee on Foreign
Relations, February 10,1988, unpublished stenographic transcript, page 70. Panama
19. When the US Coast Guard attempted to board and search a cargo ship chartered by Cuban interests for evidence of drugs, the ship fled and sought refuge in Mexican waters. The
had information that
indicated the Cuban cargo was suspect. The ship was registered in United States Panama and the US had permission from to board and search the vessel. The Mexicans then refused a Panama request to conduct a joint search of
vessel, and said they would conduct the search by themselves. Patrick E. Tyler, 'Coast Guard Fires Upon Cuban Ship', Washington Post, February 1,1990, page A1. US
20. The estimate on marijuana grown in
, for example, rose during 1989 by a
factor of ten. Michael Mexico
Isikoff, 'World Output of Narcotics Soars, Congress Told',
Post, March 2,1990, A24. Washington
21. Affidavit of Nelson Mantilla-Rey (A 28-279-438) in Support of Political Asylum Application, Sworn to and subscribed to Gial Valentino, Notary Public, May 19,1989,
. Suffolk County, Massachusetts
22. M. M. Kirsch, Designer Drugs (Minneapolis, Minnesota: CompCare Publications, 1986), page 56.
23. James A. Inciardi, 'Beyond cocaine: basuco, crack, and other coca products', Contemporary Drug
Problems, Fall 1987, page 471.
24. Designer Drugs, op. cit.
25. Ibid., pages 46-47.
26. Crack Cocaine (Washington, D.C.: US Department of Justice, 1989), page 13 and appendices.
27. Today, Federal officials estimate there are as many as 10,000 Colombian traffickers operating in the
28. Thomas L Friedman, 'US and Soviets May Swap Secrets', New York Times, April 21,1989.
29. Crozier, 'Drogue: la Filiere Sovietique', L'Express, December 25,1986, op. cit. This was immediately
followed by Rachel Ehrenfeld, 'Narco-Terrorism: The Kremlin Connection', Heritage Lectures No. 89 (Wash- ington, D.C., The Heritage Foundation, 1987), and Joseph D. Douglass, Jr. and Jan Sejna, 'International Nar- cotics Trafficking: The Soviet Connection', Journal of Defence and Diplomacy, December, 1986.
30. For an excellent analysis of the overall problem, see Jean-Francois Revel, How Democracies Perish
(Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1984).
31. Oleg Penkovskiy, The Penkovskiy Papers (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company Inc., 1965),
32. See Hedrick Smith, The Russians (New York: Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., 1976), page
17; and Journey for Our Time, the journals of the Marquis de Custine, edited and translated by Phyllis Penn
Kohler (London: Arthur Barker, Ltd., 1951).
33. The French analyst Mme. Suzanne Labin estimated the Soviet propaganda effort at $2 billion per annum back in 1960, which would suggest a much larger size today. US Senate, The Technique of Soviet Pro- paganda, A Study Presented by the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary (Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1960), page iii.
34. US House, Soviet Active Measures, Hearings Before the Permanent Select Committee on Intelli- gence, July 13,14,1982 (Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office 1982), page 49, emphasis added.
35. Ibid., pages 226-227.
36. See, for example, Anatoliy Golitsyn, New Lies for Old (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1984); John Barron, KGB Today: The Hidden Hand (New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1983); Chapman Pincher, The Secret Offensive (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985); Richard H. Shultz and Roy Godson, Dezinformatsia (Washington, D.C.: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1984); Ladislav Bittman, The KGB and Soviet Disinformation (Washington, D.C.: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1985), and Edward Jay Epstein, Deception (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989).
37. See Raymond S. Sleeper, editor, Mesmerized by the Bear (
: Dodd, Mead & Company, New York
1987); and Brian D. Dailey and Patrick J. Parker, editors, Soviet Strategic Deception (Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1987).
38. US Federal Bureau of Investigation, Soviet Active Measures in the United States 1986-1987. Reprinted by the Security and Intelligence Foundation,
, 1988, page 20. Arlington, Virginia
39. For several case studies in Soviet deception, see Raymond Sleeper, editor, Mesmerized by the Bear,
op. cit., and Brian D. Dailey and Patrick J. Parker, editors, Soviet Strategic Deception, op. cit. Regarding Soviet deception and assumptions underlying United States policy; see Mesmerized by the Bear, op. cit., pages 223-
224. See also Anatoliy Golitsyn, The Perestroika Deception, Edward Harle Limited, op. cit.
40. Sleeper, Mesmerized by the Bear, op. cit.
41. In addition to his positions described in Chapter 2, Sejna was a member of the sensitive deception review and planning committee for three Party Congresses and in respect of the development of the long-range plan.
42. A detailed discussion with examples of the Soviet strategy of offensive denial is presented in Joseph D. Douglass, Jr., Why The Soviets Violate Arms Control Treaties (Washington, D.C.: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1988), pages 63-83.
43. V. Ovchinnikov, The Drug Dealers', Pravda, September 13,1964, translation by Rachel Douglas.
44. B. Bulatov, 'How the Maoists Conduct Contraband Trade in Opium', Literaturnaya Gazeta, March
19,1969, page 12, translation by Rachel Douglas.
45. Drugs and Terrorism, 1984, op. cit.
46. Ibid., pages 67,68.
47. 'Among other traffickers associated with KINTEX are Syrian nationals Henri Arsan and Sallah
Wakkas. Both Wakkas and Arsan, the latter having died in an Italian prison, were key figures in the movement of morphine base to Italian and French laboratories during the 'French Connection' era'. Drug Enforcement Administration, Strategic Intelligence Section, The Involvement of the People's Republic of Bulgaria in Inter- national Narcotics Trafficking', Ibid., page 61.
48. Ibid., page 65.
50. It seems especially curious that it is precisely when there emerges a mass of data on the official
Bulgaria in drug-trafficking
that US officials decide to approach Bulgaria and suggest joint
operations to stop drug-trafficking through . Why Bulgaria ? Who in the US Government proposed this
there a parallel between this situation and the events in the 1980s when, all of a sudden, more
suggestions for 'joint' anti-drug-trafficking efforts and intelligence-sharing emerged following increased publicity surrounding the involvement of Communist countries? Bulgaria
51. It is also interesting that in 1986 two flattering biographies of Fidel Castro were published: Tad Szulc, Fidel: A Critical Portrait (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1986); and Peter G. Bourne, Fidel: A Biography of Fidel Castro (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1986).
52. James A. Inciardi, 'Drug Abuse in the Georgian S.S.R.', Journal of Psycho-active Drugs, October- December 1987.
53. This was one of the principal ingredients of the New Economic Policy [NEP] adopted by Lenin in 1921
(see Anatoliy Golitsyn, New Lies for Old, New York: Dodd Mead, 1984, pages 10-52) and of the 'peaceful coexistence' deception adopted by Khrushchev in 1954 (see Jan Sejna, We Will Bury You (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1982), pages 22-36; and Joseph D. Douglass, Jr., 'Soviet Strategic Deception', in Raymond S. Sleeper editor, Mesmerized by the Bear (New York: Dodd Mead, 1987)).
54. Brian Crozier, 'Drogue: la Filiere Sovietique', L'Express, December 25,1986.
55. Joseph D. Douglass, Jr. and Jan Sejna, 'International Narcotics Trafficking: The Soviet Connection',
Journal of Defence and Diplomacy, December, 1986.
56. '$20 Million in Heroin Arrived on Soviet Ship',
Times, August 19,1986, page 7A. 'Soviet Role in Dope Smuggling Exposed in European Press', New Solidarity, August 29,1986, page 5. ' Washington Italy Seizes
Hashish from Soviet Ship', Post, April 5,1987, A 19. Washington
57. The Soviets do, upon occasion, pull in their reins., in accordance with the 'one step forward, two steps back' strategy. However such operations always remain controlled: control is not severed. Moreover a diminution
of operational activity would also be apparent, but this is nowhere evident.
58. George Lardner, Jr., 'CIA Director: E. European Spies at Work',
21,1990, page A15. Earlier, Senator
William Cohen (R-ME), Vice Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee at the
time, had said: The intelligence services of Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary and Cuba continue to conduct intelligence operations
in this country, not only to serve their own national interests, but also as surrogates for Soviet intelligence'. Bill Gertz, 'Despite Reform, East Bloc Spies on US',
Washington Times, November 20,1989, page A3. Washington
Department of State, Soviet Influence Activities: A Report on Active Measures and Propaganda, US
1987-1988 (Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, August 1989).
60. Promoting the concept of reform as a mechanism to gain economic and technical assistance from the
West has been a traditional (and most successful) Soviet deception strategy. In evaluating the recent Soviet
'reforms' called perestroika and glasnost, there are two especially compelling historical references to keep in
mind. The first is Lenin's enormously successful deception, the New Economic Policy [NEP] in which Communism was portrayed as changing and embracing capitalism, but only in order to secure economic and technical assistance from the West. This eminently successful strategy, as analysed in KGB studies, is described by the former KGB officer Anatoliy Golitsyn in New Lies for Old (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1984) [and also in his more recent work, The Perestroika Deception, Edward Harle Limited, 1985 and
1998, op. cit. - Ed]. The second is the strategic deception of 'peaceful coexistence', which was launched by
Khrushchev in 1955 to procure economic and technical assistance from the West and to hasten the West's defeat [see also Note 53, above]. This strategy is described by Jan Sejna, the former Secretary of the Czechoslovak Defence Council, in We Will Bury You, op. cit. In both cases the Leninist tactics, strategy, and underlying motivations bear an uncanny resemblance to the events which took place under Mikhail Gorbachev. See especially Anatoliy Golitsyn, The Perestroika Deception, op. cit.
61. Editor's Note: Do Western intelligence communities in fact employ no Russian-speaking students of
Lenin who could have enlightened their superiors concerning the true Leninist revolutionary meaning of pere stroika- reformation, as in 'military formation'? Certainly, there is evidence of a perverse official determination to accept the Soviet Leninists' 'break with the past' lie as genuine, irrespective of the consequences. For instance, the British Ministry of Defence discarded its copies of the indispensable three-volume Documents of the Communist International, 1919-1943, edited by Jane Degras [Oxford University Press, 1956], since these volumes, complete with MOD Library Services stamp, were acquired by this writer. The British Foreign Office also sold off much of its Library of materials on Communism in 1990-91. So it is hardly surprising that Western policymakers remain blind. As a consequence, 'convergence' on the East's terms is already far advanced.