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Monday, July 25, 2011

The Kingdom of Peace

The Kingdom of Peace

Jesus Christ is generally recognized as one who has promoted and lived peace and who has brought much peace to the world.

When Jesus Christ lived on this earth, he came teaching about the Kingdom--the Kingdom of God. This was a kingdom that did not divide along religious, ethnic, or sectarian lines. It was the Kingdom of God. You couldn't look around and say with total accuracy that this person is in the kingdom and this person isn't. Yes, there were indications about who was in the kingdom, but basically the kingdom of God was a kingdom whose total membership was only known to God. And each member of that kingdom was ultimately answerable to God. As a result many leaders were fearful of him which caused them to be angry at him. The religious leaders were fearful and angry at him. The political leaders were fearful and angry at him. So did Jesus really bring peace? Yes, he brought peace of heart to the humble and repentant. But it didn't stop there. Even the proud, arrogant and unrepentant were affected by his life.

One writer in the second century wrote about those who he regarded as members of this kingdom--the kingdom of God, " 'They dwell in their own countries simply as sojourners ... They are in the flesh, but they do not live after the flesh. They pass their days on earth, but they are citizens of heaven. They obey the prescribed laws, and at the same time, they surpass the laws by their lives. They love all men but are persecuted by all. They are unknown and condemned. They are put to death, but [will be] restored to life. They are poor, yet they made many rich. They possess few things; yet, they abound in all. They are dishonored, but in their very dishonor are glorified ... And those who hate them are unable to give any reason for their hatred.' " (Will the Real Heretics Please Stand Up, p. 17) The Bible also gives the same description of people who belong to God's true kingdom.

But are these actions unique to the teachings of Christ? How exactly do the teachings of Christ promote peace?

First, we need to look at what Jesus taught about how to get into the kingdom and see two ways this promotes peace. First, it brings personal peace for the individual with regard to being in the kingdom. Jesus taught that the way we get into the kingdom is to admit from our heart that we don't deserve it. The reason why Jesus said we don't deserve it is because of the universal knowledge that every human falls short of God's standard. Some people may challenge that. They may say they don't believe in sin or even in God. But I find these same people criticizing others for failing in one thing or another, yet they themselves fail in the same things. So even though they don't believe in God or a violation of God's commandments, they have adopted an unwritten standard which may or may not change from time to time. Nevertheless, in the process they themselves have set themselves up as lords over other people and have judged them according to their own standard. What this does is condemn and bring judgment upon themselves, because sooner or later they will commit the same error and will stand condemned by their own words on the day of judgment when all is revealed.

Second, peace is shown by the individual members of the kingdom toward others around them. The following account is of one man's entrance into the kingdom of God. When he first entered the kingdom of God. He was possessed by a great love toward my fellow human beings, especially one individual who had been unkind to him and many others. The reason why he was possessed with this love was because he was full of the knowledge of the love of God toward him. For a short time he had been aware that he was a sinful being and therefore separated from God. He didn't know what to do about this. A couple of religious people had given him their advice but in the end he sensed he should simply express to God what he felt the need of my heart was. Having done that he sensed a peace that he had been honest with God. He also sensed that God heard and cared. Obviously, he knew this much about God. Only an hour or two later he was struck with a strong sense of his sin. Verses from the Holy Bible came to his mind. He simply agreed with God in his heart and mind. Then he was reminded of the words of the Holy Bible that spoke of God's love for him--how God had sent Jesus Christ to come and die in his place to ransom him from eternity separated from God in hell. He acknowledged this to be true. At that very moment he realized he was no longer separated from God. He was included in God's family--God's kingdom. The very next day he saw another person struggling with a heavy load. Suddenly a thought came to mind, "Why don't you go help him?" to which he responded in his heart, "Why should I? He's been mean to me all week long." Immediately another thought came, "But didn't Jesus Christ love you when you didn't deserve it?" To that he could not reply. The only way to be true to God and himself was to help the person. He did this out of respect to God and found great joy in the process. Love had conquered. The love of God received had stimulated love for others. This is the experience of the author who writes this. It is also the revelation of God to mankind.

1 John 4:7-13
Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. He who does not love does not know God, for God is love. In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins. Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us. By this we know that we abide in Him, and He in us, because He has given us of His Spirit.

God not only asks us to love our brother, those who are close to us, agree with us, and are apart of the same kingdom (which is usually quite easy to do) ...

1 John 4:19-21
We love Him because He first loved us. If someone says, "I love God,'' and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen? And this commandment we have from Him: that he who loves God must love his brother also.

... but he also asks us to love our neighbour also (which is again quite easy to do seeing that our neighbours may help us in return when we are in a difficult position).

Matthew 19:19b
" 'You shall love your neighbour as yourself.' "

But even further, he asks us to love our enemies, not those whom we hate but those who hate us and who we might be tempted to hate. This is much more difficult to do.

Matthew 5:38-48
"You have heard that it was said, `An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.' "But I tell you not to resist an evil person. But whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. If anyone wants to sue you and take away your tunic, let him have your cloak also. And whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. Give to him who asks you, and from him who wants to borrow from you do not turn away. You have heard that it was said, `You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? And if you greet your brethren only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the tax collectors do so? Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect."

People may argue that other religious leaders have also encouraged their followers to love their enemies. That is certainly true. Yet Jesus did this from a personal position of no political or economic power or influence. He also died for the cause of peace. Because he refused to cause harm to others or encourage his followers to harm others, he willingly gave up his life even when accused unjustly.

John 18:36-37
Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.'' Pilate therefore said to Him, "Are You a king then?'' Jesus answered, "You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.''

Are Jesus' followers doing this today? Many people who claim to be Jesus' followers are not doing this today because they really aren't his followers. Others are his followers but in this area aren't following him or haven't realized the promises that God gives to those who follow these instructions. They fail to realize the promises God has given to them, that when we give up our own power, God steps in and exerts his power. When we allow him to do this, people see that it is God at work. As a result God is praised, remembered and glorified; but also the person realizes they have seen the work of God and they sense the presence of God. Therefore they fulfill the purpose that God put them here on earth for, to experience God in truth. It is the sense of God's presence that brings repentance and the power to live a life pleasing to God.

Furthermore, Jesus Christ is unique in this. By giving up his very life, he gave the greatest expression of love that any man can give, setting the greatest example of love for others. Yet in his resurrection he cleared the way for the greatest power for a life of love, because the only thing that keeps us out of God's kingdom is sin. The just result of sin is death and death is the greatest enemy and greatest fear for the common man. When love is required, the follower of Jesus has an example that causes him to love to the point of death, not dying in physical aggression toward others but dying because he chose to live in peace with his fellow man. But in that example he has the assurance that death is not the end, that as Jesus Christ rose from the dead, he too will rise to eternity with God on the Day of Resurrection. These very facts cause anger in the hearts of some people. They are jealous of the peace they see in the followers of Christ, yet they don't have the faith in God and the courage to join them. However, the true follower of Jesus Christ presses on knowing that he must follow truth.

The way to peace is to believe the promises of God that he has given through trust in the life and work of Jesus Christ. It brings peace with God to the individual but also puts him at peace with others. Societies that have truly embraced Jesus' teachings on peace have been affected in mass by this truth, have not only provided a good place for themselves to live but have also shown love on those who have not chosen this way of peace.

The author welcomes responses to

Isa al-Mesih --- Jesus, the Messiah Who is Jesus Christ? by Memsuah Mansoor

Isa al-Mesih
Jesus, the Messiah

Who is Jesus Christ?

by Memsuah Mansoor

In the Arabic language two words are used for Jesus. One is Isa, the other is Yesuah. An interesting title is used with this name. It is the title al-Mesih. In Arabic a person who is anointed can be called a mamsuah. This means "one who is anointed." It refers to a person anointed by another human being. However, Jesus Christ is referred to in the Arabic as al-Mesih. Mesih means "most anointed" and "one who has the ability to anoint others." Mesih is used to show that the person is actually anointed by God and therefore carries the authority of God as he is obedient to God. A person who is anointed is one who is chosen and appointed to a specific work or position and then given what is needed to do what he is appointed to do or be what he is appointed to be. Al is the equivalent of "the" in English and refers to "that which is like no other." In the Taurat, Zabur and Sahaif-e-Anbia (Old Testament) the Hebrew term "the Messiah" is used for "the anointed one." In the Injil (New Testament) the Greek term "the Christ" is used for "the anointed one." They both have the same meaning as al-Mesih, "the most anointed one who has the power and authority to anoint others."

In the Holy Bible and also in the Qur'an Jesus Christ is clearly presented as the Messiah (al-Mesih). Since Jesus Christ is al-Mesih, what was he anointed with? The Holy Bible tells us that his anointing was the anointing of the Holy Spirit. This is why he is sometimes called the Ruh-hu-allah, the Spirit of God. This is confirmed by the fact that, while the Qur'an, the Hadiths, and the Holy Bible all claim that other prophets have sinned, none of them ever claim that the Jesus Christ, the Messiah (al-Mesih), sinned or even made a mistake. This Spirit actually anointed his body to live a perfect life and act with the power and authority of God. This is confirmed by the fact that neither the Qur'an, the Hadiths, nor the Holy Bible ever claim that the Messiah (al-Mesih), unlike any other human being, ever sinned or even made a mistake. This Spirit actually anointed his body to live a perfect life and act with the power and authority of God.

There are a number of people mentioned in the Holy Bible who had a special relationship with God, an anointing by God, giving them the title "son of God." One of these was Adam. He was a "son . . . of God." (Injil, Luke 3:23, 38) God had a special relationship with him. God created Adam and breathed into him the breath of life. (Taurat, Genesis 2:7) Adam and Eve were created sinless or innocent and could communicate with God. They were also given authority to rule over all living creatures in the sea, the air and on the earth. (Taurat, Genesis 1:26)

A king who was anointed by the authority of God also had a special relationship with God and were called "God's son." This is shown in Psalm 2 where God's anointed king is called his "son." King Saul, King David and King Solomon were all anointed by God. They were anointed by the Spirit of God to be kings over God's people. This anointing changed King Saul's character. (Anbia, 1 Samuel 10:1, 9-11) King David received the Spirit of God in power. (Anbia, 1 Samuel 16:13) God called Solomon his son and Solomon was promised the continual love and wisdom of God. (Anbia, 2 Samuel 7:12-16, Anbia, 1Kings 3:5-14)

So who really is Jesus the Messiah (al-Mesih)? The Holy Scriptures tell us he is a King. You may have heard that some people call Jesus Christ a "son." Is he really a "son?" If so, what kind of "son" is he? If anointed kings (mesih) were called "sons," is it proper to call the anointed Messiah, (al-Mesih) a "son"? The word "son" can be used in different ways. Sometimes the Holy Bible uses it in the physical sense, sometimes in the spiritual or figurative sense. The word "son" can be used in all of these senses in the Holy Bible, but it never means that God had a wife. This is a common misunderstanding among Muslims who are led to believe by their own leaders that this "sonship" is the result of a physical relationship between God and Mary. This, however, is not what the Holy Bible teaches. When referring to the Lord Jesus Christ, this term is used in the spiritual sense and simply refers to a special relationship through an anointing by God. It is a term of great honour and expresses a special choosing.

It is clear that al-Mesih, Jesus Christ is an anointed king, but is it really true that Isa al-Mesih is "Jesus, the one and only Son of God"? If we look carefully we will see that the meaning is the same. Both terms mean an anointing by God. The reason why a king was called a son in the Zabur and Sahaif-e-Anbia, was because God chose him to rule over his people. The spiritual anointing, giving him authority and power, was demonstrated by a physical anointing. The words Messiah, Christ and Mesih, mean, "anointed one." In the Injil, one of Jesus' disciples, the Apostle Peter, connected these two terms together. He said, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." (Injil, Matthew 16:16) Jesus' reply was, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven." (Injil, Matthew 16:17) Are we faithful to the true meaning of Isa al-Mesih?

When Jesus came, he was called "the Son of God." Notice that he wasn't simply called "a son of God." The angel Gabriel said to Miriam, (Mary) the mother of Jesus, " ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God’." (Injil, Luke 1:35) In the presence of many people, a voice came from heaven saying, " 'You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.' " (Injil, Luke 3:21-22) Many times this phrase is used of Jesus. What does it mean? It refers to a special relationship with God. He is not just "a son of God;" he is "the Son of God." He is referred to in the Bible as God's "one and only Son." (Injil, John 3:16) The word for "one and only" in the original language of the Injil means "unique" or "best-beloved." He was the unique Son of God because he was the Spirit of God clothed in human flesh.

We have seen that in order to be a "son," one needs to have a special anointing. In the case of Adam, God breathed into him the breath of life. He was anointed with the breath of life. In the case of King Saul, his character changed. The Prophet David was given power by God. The Prophet Soloman was loved by God and given special wisdom.

We have also seen that the Hebrew word, Messiah, actually means "anointed one." This is important. Understanding Jesus Christ as "the Son of God," begins with acknowledging the fact that he is the Messiah (al-Mesih). According to the prophets who lived hundreds of years before Jesus Christ, the Messiah would be a man who would speak and act with the power and authority of God and would also be called with the names of God Almighty.

You may be thinking, "This is all too confusing. God would never use a term so confusing as 'the Son of God' to describe Isa al-Mesih!" Please consider this. In Pakistan and even in the Arab world, if a man's only child is a daughter, if she brings him great honour, if she bears his character or resemblance or if he simply loves his daughter dearly he may say, "This is my son." When a man is asked why he would call his daughter, his son, the frequent response is this, "Because of affection." The affection that a firstborn son would normally hold in his father's heart is the affection that this man holds for his daughter. The question is, "What kind of affection is this? What does it entail?" Physically, she is not his son at all! She's his daughter! But everyone knows exactly what he means. She came from him and submits to him. He loves her dearly like no other child, and may give her a special inheritance. To be called a "son" in this way is a great honour.

The same is true with Jesus Christ. God's love for him was very unique. Never before had he loved anyone like he loved Jesus Christ. God himself spoke from heaven saying, "This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!" (Injil, Matthew 17:5) All that God had was shared with Jesus Christ--his character, his power, his eternal love. Jesus Christ submitted to God and proved this by healing people of their illnesses, forgiving sin, and finally rising from the dead as he said he would. He has also promised to raise you and me from death to eternal life if we trust in him alone to bring us to God. He will change our character, and will call us his "sons," not because we deserve it, but because of his love for us. He will anoint us as his "sons" and give us the inheritance of his spirit and eternal life. In the Injil it says, "Yet all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God-- children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband's will, but born of God." (Injil, John 1:12-13) God desires to anoint us with his eternal love. A Muslim man was talking to the author of this article one day and emphatically said, "There is no relationship between God and Jesus!" to which the author said, "That's right there is no physical relationship between God and Jesus, but you did say a few minutes ago that Jesus is the "ruh-hu-allah," right? To this the Muslim man agreed. "So whose Spirit is this?" It was agreed that it was God's Spirit. "And who was it given to?" It was agreed that it was given to Jesus. "So was it still God's Spirit even though it is in Jesus Christ?" To this the Muslim man just smiled. He knew the point the author was about to make, "So if God's Spirit lives in Jesus, while still remaining God's Spirit, then there is a relationship between God and Jesus, definitely not a physical relationship, but certainly a spiritual relationship!" Since it was God's Spirit it was God who chose to put his own Spirit within Jesus Christ. This Spirit continued to be God's Spirit even while dwelling in Jesus. God who is spirit, continued to be God. This is obvious, but it is also very revealing, because it shows us the greatness of God and Jesus Christ. It also proves that the God who chose to have his spirit dwell in Christ, can dwell in those God choses to anoint.

Should a person believe that Isa al-Mesih is "Jesus, the one and only Son of God" without doing further study? Is there more evidence to support this belief? The next two sections answer these questions. As you continue to read, please remember what you have just learned about the true meaning of "the Son of God" in the Holy Bible.

The Messiah, al-Mesih

in the Writings of the Prophets

In the Qur'an those regarded as prophets are called servants. In the Zabur and Sahaif-e-Anbia an anointed king, (messiah) was also called a servant. Prophets and other godly men are also called servants in the Zabur and Sahaif-e-Anbia. A servant was someone who was chosen and appointed to work for his master. Everything he did was to be in submission to his Lord. If the king was anointed by the command of God, then he was referred to as God's servant. 2 Chronicles 6:42, in the Anbia says, "O LORD God, do not reject your anointed one. Remember the great love promised to David your servant." Here the prophet David equates these two terms. Again he says, "For the sake of David your servant, do not reject your anointed one." (Zabur, Psalms 132:10) God himself equates these two terms, "I have found David my servant; with my sacred oil I have anointed him." (Zabur, Psalms 89:20) Great promises were made to his servant, King David. God said, "I will not take my love from him," (Zabur, Psalm 89:33) His line would "continue forever." (Zabur, Psalm 89:36) Other times David was referred to as God's servant or God's anointed. (Anbia, 2 Samuel 3:18; 19:21; Anbia, 1 Kings 11:34, 36, 38; Zabur, Psalms 89:50, 51; Anbia, Jeremiah 33:25-26) These terms were also used for King Saul. (Anbia, 1 Samuel 10:1; Anbia, 1 Samuel 26:16)

These two terms, "servant" and "anointed" were used to refer to the Messiah as well. This servant is referred to by God through the prophet Isaiah, " 'Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight: I will put my Spirit on him and he will bring justice to the nations.' " (Anbia, Isaiah 42:1) This verse contains the same message we saw quoted earlier about Jesus Christ that was given by the voice that spoke from heaven at Jesus’ baptism and transfiguration. Isaiah continued to write God’s message about his servant,

This is what God the Lord says--he who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and all that comes out of it, who gives breath to its people, and life to those who walk on it: "I, the LORD, have called you in righteousness; I will take hold of your hand. I will keep you and will make you to be a covenant for the people and a light for the Gentiles, to open eyes that are blind, to free captives from prison and to release from the dungeon those who sit in darkness." (Anbia, Isaiah 42:5-7)

God goes on to tell us about this servant,

"See, my servant will act wisely; he will be raised and lifted up and highly exalted." (Anbia, Isaiah 52:13) "Yet it was the LORD's will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though the LORD makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of the LORD will prosper in his hand. After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light of life and he satisfied; by his knowledge my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities." (Anbia, Isaiah 53:10-11)

As we see he was no ordinary servant; he was God's righteous servant. Other servants make mistakes from time to time, but Jesus Christ, as God's righteous servant, never once make a mistake, making him the Servant of all servants.

When the Lord Jesus Christ came, "servant" and "anointed" were used to refer to him. In a prayer, the apostles of Jesus quoted from the second Psalm of David where God calls the anointed King his "Son," " 'Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against the Lord and against his Anointed One.' " (Injil, Acts 4:25, 26) In that same prayer they said, " 'Indeed Herod and Pontius Pilate met together with the Gentiles and the people of Israel in this city to conspire against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed.' " (Injil, Acts 4:27) Here Jesus is referred to as God's servant; not just a servant, but God's holy servant. "Holy" means "set apart for a special purpose." In the writings of the prophets, the anointed servant, Messiah, was of a higher rank than the other "servants". (Anbia, Isaiah 42-53) In the Injil, the Lord Jesus Christ proved to be this holy servant by his life, teaching and miracles.

The Christ, al-Mesih

in the Injil

As we have seen, the Messiah who was foretold by the prophets, was the human being most highly and uniquely anointed with the power and spirit of God. We have seen a few scriptures from the Holy Bible that point to this fact. But are these isolated references or is there really a wealth of evidence to support these facts?

I have searched for the answer to that question. In my search, I have discovered that long ago others were also searching to find out who Jesus Christ really was. God has revealed in the Injil the answers they found. Did they really understand that another term for the Christ, (al-Mesih), was the Son of God? Here is what I found:

The Apostle Peter, a disciple of Jesus, said to Jesus, " 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.' " (Injil, Matthew 16:16) Jesus' reply was, " 'Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven.' " (Injil, Matthew 16:17)

The Apostle John, the writer of the Gospel of John, also confirmed that "the Son of God" referred to "the Christ." He wrote, "But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. . . ." (Injil, John 20:31)

The sister of the man whom Jesus raised from the dead said, " 'Yes, Lord, I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.' " (Injil, John 11:27 ) ) These were not new concepts to them but had been written by the prophets centuries before and had been anticipated for years. Before and during the Lord Jesus Christ's life on earth, there was a group of men (Essenes) who dedicated their lives to the study and copying of the scriptures. In their study, they saw that the Messiah, the Root of Jesse, the Prophet like unto Moses, the Righteous Servant, the Righteous One, the Son of God, the Son of Man, the King and the Branch of David described in the Taurat, Zabur and the Sahaif-e-Anbia would be the same person. Before Jesus Christ was born they recognized that the Messiah was soon to come. As a result they felt it their responsibility to make people of their day aware of the fact that the Taurat, Zabur and the Sahaif-e-Anbia revealed the Messiah as the spiritual Son of God.

In the writings of the Prophets (Sahaif-e-Anbia), the Messiah was presented as a King. An ordinary king who was anointed by the authority of God was called a "son" of God. Since he was anointed he was also called a messiah. In light of this, Nathanael, another of Jesus' disciples, said, " 'Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.' " (Injil, John 1:49)

Luke, the writer of the Gospel of Luke, quotes the demons as saying about Jesus, " 'You are the Son of God.' " (Injil, Luke 4:41) Luke then describes Jesus' action, "But he rebuked them and would not allow them to speak, because they knew he was the Christ." (Injil, Luke 4:41)

At Jesus' trial he was questioned extensively,

At daybreak the council of the elders of the people, both the chief priests and teachers of the law, met together, and Jesus was led before them. "If you are the Christ," they said, "tell us." Jesus answered, "If I tell you, you will not believe me, and if I asked you, you would not answer. But from now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the mighty God." They all asked, "Are you then the Son of God?" He replied, "You are right in saying I am." Then they said, "Why do we need any more testimony? We have heard it from his own lips." Then the whole assembly rose and led him off to Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, "We have found this man subverting our nation. He opposes payment of taxes to Caesar and claims to be Christ, a king." (Injil, Luke 22:66-23:2)

They asked him if he was the Christ. He said he was the Son of Man. They knew if he would say that he was also the Son of God, they would have their answer because it had been revealed to the prophets that the Messiah would be a man anointed by God to forgive sin and rule with power. Upon his testimony that he was the Son of God, he confirmed that he was the Christ (al-Mesih).

The disciple Matthew verifies this account. When Jesus was questioned by the Jewish high priest, the priest said, " 'Tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.' " (Injil, Matthew 26:63) Even though the priest was an enemy of Christ and did not believe Jesus was the Christ, the priest, like others, understood that these two terms had the same meaning and spoke of the same person. This is shown by the meanings of the words themselves but also from the grammatical structure of the sentence.

The Apostle Paul testified that the term "the Son of God" was "the Christ." (Injil, Galatians 2:20; Injil, Ephesians 4:13) He also confirmed that Jesus Christ was the spiritual Son of God, " . . . who was to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God, by his resurrection from the dead. . . ." (Injil, Romans 1:3-4)

Many more people testified that the person Jesus Christ, himself, really was the Son of God. (Injil, Mark 1:1; Injil, Acts 8:37; Injil, Acts 9:20; Injil, Romans 1:4, Injil, 2 Corinthians 1:19; Injil, Hebrews 4:14; Injil, 1 John 4:15; Injil, 1 John 5:20)

It was obvious to the people that Jesus Christ claimed to be the Son of God. Some were skeptical and some believed. Yet whether they believed or not, they knew, from reading the Taurat, Zabur and Sahaif-e-Anbia, what kind of power the Son of God would have. He would be more than an ordinary prophet. He would be more than an ordinary king. He would be God's holy servant. Nothing would be too difficult for him. The Injil tells us more about him. He had the angels at his command. (Injil, Matthew 4:6) He had power over nature. (Injil, Matthew 14:31-33; 27:54) His manner of life was different from any man. (Injil, Mark 15:39) He should be honoured. (Injil, Hebrews 6:6) He would be an eternal priest. (Injil, Hebrews 7:3) He would destroy the work of the devil. (Injil, 1 John 3:8) He would give eternal life to those who trust him. (Injil, 1 John 5:12)

The Holy Bible (Taurat, Zabur, Sahaif-e-Anbia and Injil) clearly teaches that the Christ, the Messiah, al-Mesih, was the unique King, not a king for just one ethnic group, but the King for all mankind. We see that the "the Son of God," "the Messiah," "the Christ," and al-Mesih, all mean an "anointing by God." They are also connected with the idea of "God's unique King." They are used together and in place of each other by friends and foes of Jesus Christ.

The Holy Bible goes further to present how Jesus Christ, himself, is the Christ, (al-Mesih) the beloved Son of God. But many of the same people who claim to revere Jesus as al-Mesih, mock him as the Son of God. It causes God great sadness that many people do not understand the honour of the great name of Jesus Christ, even though it is so clear in God's Word. In doing so they miss the blessing that he wants to give them because they misunderstand the authority, power and love he has, which allows him to give them what they long for the most, forgiveness of sin which results in acceptance by God. How can this be?

The Scriptures say,

With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who have been made in God's likeness. Out of the same mouth come praise and cursing. My brothers, this should not be. Can both fresh water and salt water flow from the same spring? My brothers, can a fig tree bear olives, or a grapevine bear figs? Neither can a salt spring produce fresh water. (Injil, James 3:9-12)

Let us understand the true nature of Jesus Christ, the Son of God as al-Mesih. Let us bless him not only with the honour God blessed him with, but since he is al-Mesih, let him anoint us with his love and let him give us a new life.

The Injil says,

Concerning this salvation, the prophets, who spoke of the grace that was to come to you, searched intently and with the greatest care, trying to find out the time and circumstances to which the Spirit of Christ in them was pointing when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, when they spoke of the things that have now been told you by those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven. Even angels long to look into these things. (Injil, 1 Peter 1:10-12)

The message about Jesus Christ in the Holy Bible is a consistent message from front to back. To know more about al-Mesih and the acceptance and forgiveness he offers, write the author.

Scripture taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NIV®, Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by IBS. All rights reserved.

The Meaning of al-Masih by Memsuah Mansoor

The Meaning of al-Masih

Memsuah Mansoor

The Arabic word, "masih" differs from "mamsuah" in that "mamsuah" simply means "anointed" and signifies a lesser anointing. "Masih" however, is based on the grammatical form which emphasizes the fact of the anointing being possessed by someone or something. It is an "intensive form" that often indicates "a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses or an act which is done with frequency ... by their subject." (Bold emphasis mine.) (A Grammar of the Arabic Language, vol. 1, Edited by W. Wright, L.L.D, copyright 1967, p. 136) Although words of the "fa`eel" form (the form which "masih" is from) when derived from transitive verbs, has usually a passive sense" (Wright, p. 136), they can also be used in a higher sense as cited above. Beeston in The Arabic Language Today, states "The reader faced with a participle pattern will always need to consider whether in the given context it is being used in the fundamental value or in one of the specialized meanings ..." (p. 35) Wright cites the form "fa`eel" as being an adjective which is "made like, or assimilated to, the participles, viz. in respect to their inflection." (p. 133) He also states that adjectives of the "fa`eel" form express "a quality inherent and permanent in a person." (p. 133) Based on these definitions and the examples of other Arabic words in the cited book by Wright, "masih" is grammatically capable of carrying the idea of "very anointed" or "most anointed" both of which would express "a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses" or even "anointing one" which would express "an act which is done with frequency ... by their subject". Because of the extent of the anointing, it follows logically that the anointed one, "masih", has the responsibility and the right to anoint others, making him also an anointer. In the same way "shaheed", which is the same grammatical form as "masih", means witness, meaning one who witnesses, or witnesser, because the one who has witnessed the truth logically becomes the witnesser, or the one who is witnessing to the truth. God is referred to as "as-Shaheed" because He is the witness above all witnesses.

Three factors work together to determine the meaning of "masih" when referring to Isa al-Masih, these are: 1) the grammatical form, 2) the logical progression of carrying out the responsibilities inherently existing within the anointing, and 3) the context of the use of "masih". After Muslims realize that it is unreasonable to simply treat it as a title which has no meaning, and that it is distinct from "mamsuah", they consistently give one of the following definitions of "masih": "most anointed, who naturally has the ability to anoint others" or "anointer". One Arab from a Muslim background actually stated, "As the anointed holy messenger, he anointed by purifying and giving benedictions [blessings]." Many times, however, people attempt to suppress the full meaning of "al-Masih". Yet the Qur'an never refers to any other prophet as being "masih" much less "al-Masih".

For those who still want to simply call "al-Masih" a title for Jesus Christ, please consider the following. If today in Saudi Arabia, a ordinary citizen claimed to be the King of Saudi Arabia, and began calling himself the Sheikh of Saudi Arabia, either the authorities would say he was mentally deranged and he would be a laughing stock or they might even escort him out of the country--or worse. When Jesus Christ was born, it was revealed by God that he would be a king. (Injil, Matthew 2) (That is part of what "masih" signifies.) In fact, it was written that he would be the Messianic King. Even though "King" is a title, King Herod did not take this lightly because he understood that "king" had a very clear meaning. As a result, he very cleverly tried to kill Jesus. This type of scenario is constantly occurring around the world today. To say that the term "al-Masih" is simply a title, without meaning, fails to take into account the logical and grammatical sense.

There are those who suggest that the term "masih" is a borrowed word from the Hebrew. Obviously there is a definite connection, as with many other Hebrew and Arabic words, because of the close connection between the Hebrew and Arabic languages. However, to say that it was only a Hebrew word doesn't fit the evidence. "Msh" from which "masih" comes is listed in every dictionary I have looked at, as a genuine Arabic word and "masih" is a genuine Arabic form. But in any case, since it is referring to a person referred to in the Hebrew language, the title "masih" should not be separated from the fullness of the meaning which it held in the Hebrew context. Though not always admitted in Islamic doctrine, the significance that the Jewish Messiah had is brought across in the Arabic grammar because "al" makes reference to "a previously known" or "specific" masih, and is often used to indicate the greatest one.

The meaning of "al-Masih" is significant when we recognize that Jesus Christ was the only one who is referred to in the Bible or the Qur'an as being "the masih" which is expressed in Arabic as "al-Masih" and in Hebrew as "Ha-ma-shee-ach". None of the other prophets are referred to by this title. In both cases the articles "al" and "Ha" refer to someone or something of pre-eminence, or someone or something previously known and recognized. Having established this important foundation, it is necessary to discover what kind of anointing this is. What was Jesus Christ anointed with, which he was given the responsibility of passing on?

As cited above, the context is important to show the full extent of the meaning of "al-Masih". The Qur'an refers to "spirit" in regard to Jesus in Sura 4:171, 2:87 and 5:110. In order to understand it's meaning, we need to follow proper rules of context and go back to the books that came first. Injil, Luke 1:35 describes how the angel Gabriel (Jibra`el) spoke to Mary (Miriam), "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God." Jesus Christ not only had a special anointing of God's Holy Spirit at his baptism (Injil, Matthew 3:16); he had a special anointing of the divine essence at his birth in that he was the eternal Word of God come in human flesh (Injil, John 1:1,14; John 4:24; Colossians 2:9). This shows us that as a man, he was more than a prophet. However, this is not the spirit some Muslims say simply refers to the breath of life that each person has, and is referred to in the Qur'an in Sura 15:29, 32:9 and 38:73. Neither is it the spirit some Muslims say refers to Jibra`el (Gabriel) in Sura 16:102. It is not the "Holy Spirit" that some Muslims say refers to Muhammad, nor is it simply a spirit proceeding from God.

The Qur'an specifically states in Sura 2:87 and 5:110 that he was strengthened by the Holy Spirit. In 5:110 it states that this anointing of the Holy Spirit caused him to do many miracles. The Bible describes how he was anointed by the Holy Spirit at his baptism that publicly announced the presence of and unleashed the power of God already in Him and began his public ministry. Jesus' apostle, Peter, in the Injil describes it like this,

You know what has happened ... after the baptism that John preached--how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power, and how he went around doing good and healing all who were under the power of the devil, because God was with him. (Injil, Acts 10:37-38)

This special anointing is evidenced by his authority as a man to forgive sin (Injil, Mark 2:5-12), in Injil, Luke 4:14-44 by his power to preach and do miracles as predicted in these verses,

The Spirit of God is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor. (Injil, Luke 4:18-19)

His anointing was so great that he even claimed to be over the Law of Moses by being the Lord of the Sabbath. (Injil, Luke 6:1-11)

In the Holy Bible the Holy Spirit was symbolized by the dove that came down on Jesus Christ (Injil, Matthew 3:16; Luke 3:22) and was spoken of by Jesus (Injil, John 20:21-22) and came on Jesus' disciples. (Injil, Acts 2:4) Jesus Christ not only had the breath of life, he also was anointed with the Spirit of God like no other man. If "spirit of God" means the physical breath of life, as some Muslims teach, then any ordinary man who is breathing should be able to do miracles just like Jesus did. Also, there would have been not reason for Jesus to say to his disciples who were alive, breathing men, "Receive the Holy Spirit." (Injil, John 20:22) But that is not the case. It is written in the Injil,

On the last and greatest day of the Feast, Jesus stood and said in a loud voice, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink. Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will flow from within him." By this he meant the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were later to receive. Up to that time the Spirit had not been given, since Jesus had not yet been glorified. (Injil, John 7:37-39)

Because "God is spirit" (Injil, John 4:24) and Jesus was the Word and "the Word was God" (Injil, John 1:1), this eternal Word, possessed the divine spirit and nature and essence of God. It was this Word that became flesh (Injil, John 1:14) It is because of these facts that the Scriptures state, "For in Christ all the fulness of the Deity lives in bodily form," (Injil, Colossians 2:9) This union of God and man can be described as an anointing. This anointing of divine spirit, nature and essence that existed from Jesus' conception, is not to be confused with the anointing that causes people to be called "sons of God" as is mentioned in Injil, John 1:12-13, "Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God--children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or of a husband's will, but born [produced] of God." and Romans 8:14, "because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God." (NIV) These verses are speaking of grown human beings upon whom the Holy Spirit comes, allowing them to be called "sons of God." Jesus Christ, however, was the eternal Word, as mentioned above, revealed in human flesh to live among us for a while. His body was human flesh embodying the very nature and essence of God, which kept his body free from sin and impurity. For this reason he and he alone is called "the Son of God." This term expresses the uniqueness and greatness of his anointing expressed in the Arabic words chosen for him--al-Masih--making him not only the Son of God but also the Judge of all mankind (Injil, Acts 10:42; Acts 17:31) and who today is anointing men and women with the Holy Spirit of God.

The author welcomes your thoughts, critique or further questions!

Scripture taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NIV®, Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by IBS. All rights reserved.

The Son of God in the Bible and the Qur'an

The Son of God in the Bible and the Qur'an

Memsuah Mansoor

Frequently one will hear the statement, "What you believe is very similar to what we believe except we don't believe Jesus was the Son of God." Although Muslims and true Christians both believe in Jesus as a Prophet, yet the difference in the understanding of this word, son, causes them to believe different things about this great Prophet. Why is this? What does the word really mean? Why is there such great misunderstanding?


Part of the misunderstanding has arisen because of a misunderstanding of the word ibn, ﺍﺑﻦ . Though not specifically addressed to Christians, but people in general, and most likely idolators who referred to their idols as sons and daughters of God, the issue of whether God can have sons or daughters is addressed in the Qur'an in Sura 6:100 and the following verses. Verses 100 and 101 state,

Yet they make
Jinns equals
With Allah, though Allah
Did create the
And they falsely,
Having no knowledge,
Attribute to Him
Sons and daughters,
Praise and glory be
To him (for He is) above
What they attribute to Him!
To Him is due
The primal origin
Of the heavens and the earth:
How can He have a son
When He hath no consort?
He created all
And He hath full knowledge
Of all things.

It states that those who have no knowledge say that God has offspring, ﺑﻧﻴﻦ and ﺑﻨﺖ , male and female, coming from the Arabic word, ibn ﺍﺑﻦ , having a spiritual or physical meaning.(1) It follows directly on by stating that God could have no son walad ﻮﻟﺪ (also having a spiritual or physical meaning)(2) since he has no wife (sahiba). So we see from the context that the term, ibn ﺍﺑﻦ , which can have a physical or spiritual meaning, was understood to have a physical meaning. It was this physical meaning that was negated. Since the Bible never refers to Jesus as the physical son of God, it is clear that the Qur'an is not addressing what the Scriptures (the Holy Bible) of true Christians say. Instead the Qur’an is most likely addressing pagan beliefs or perhaps the beliefs of those who claimed to be Christians but who had erroneous beliefs that were not taken from the Bible. If it was intended to refute what the Christian scriptures state, then it is clear that there was a misunderstanding of what the Christians scriptures actually said about the Prophet Jesus. How do we know there was a misunderstanding?

All but one reference in the Qur'an that negate the Sonship of Jesus Christ, 'Isa al-Masih, ibn Miriam, in the negation use the Arabic word, walad ﻮﻟﺪ , generally meaning a physical son in the nominative but also able to have a spiritual/metaphorical meaning.(3) Sura 9:30, “The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!”, is the only place in the Qur'an where Jesus Christ is referred to as the Son of God using the word, ibn ﺍﺑﻦ . However, the second part of the verse containing the actual statement denouncing the confession of Christians that “the Messiah is the Son of God”, uses neither the word ibn ﺍﺑﻦ nor the word walad ﻮﻟﺪ in its denunciation. Since ibn ﺍﺑﻦ can have either a physical or spiritual meaning, without a specific word used in the negation it is unclear whether the physical or spiritual meaning, is denounced. There are three possibilities in it's interpretation. Either only the physical meaning is denounced, only the spiritual meaning is denounced or both are denounced. When one applies the context in Sura 6:100-101 and Sahih Muslim Vol. 1, chapter 81, number 0352 (see footnote 13) to determine the correct interpretation of Sura 9:30, then only physical sonship was understood from the word ibn ﺍﺑﻦ in this situation and only physical sonship was denounced because both passages state and then negate the presence of a wife in the process.


The Prophet David was anointed to be King of the bani-Israel. In Psalm 2:7 of the Zabur زبور , the Prophet David is referred to as “son”, an anointed King, who would rule with God’s authority, “I will proclaim the decree of the LORD: He said to me, ‘You are my Son [ben]; today I have become your Father [yawlad].’ ” Psalm 2:12 says, “Kiss the Son [ben], lest he be angry and you be destroyed in your way.” From the context it is very clear that no physical sonship is implied. In referring to the Prophet David, this verse also refers to the descendant of the Prophet David who was prophesied to be the Messiah, al-Masih المسيح , the King who would have an everlasting kingdom. (1 Chron. 17:11-14) The Injil clearly proves that Jesus is the Messiah that would come. This reference from the Psalms, Zabur زبور , is cited 3 times in the Injil as the proof of Jesus’ nature and authority as the promised Messiah, المسيح .(4) The Hebrew word “ben” in Psalm 2:7, 12 corresponds to the Arabic word ibn ﺍﺑﻦ . To show the source of the anointing, the word, “yawlad” is used. This is the verbal form of the Hebrew word “walad” which corresponds with the Arabic word walad ﻮﻟﺪ . Therefore to refuse to use the verbal form of the word walad ﻮﻟﺪ in the proper spiritual sense when referring to the source of the divine nature of Jesus Christ is to contradict the Holy Bible--Taurat, Zabur, Anbia (Writings of Jewish Prophets) and Injil.

In both the Hebrew and the Arabic, the verbal form of “walad” is used to refer to physical birth or a spiritual anointing.(5) Although the noun form “walad” is not used in the Hebrew Scriptures when referring to the source of Jesus’ divine nature, the verbal form “yawlad” is used in this meaning. As already cited, “ben” is regularly used to refer to the “son-messiah” المسيح. This is the precedent that God has set in his word. The context in Psalm 2 is the key to understanding the message. It is absolutely clear that this was no physical birth. This psalm speaks of a grown person who is inaugurated as the king of God’s people, and the term “yawlad” denotes the giving of the authority and power of God’s Spirit. When Psalm 2:7 is quoted in the Injil as referring to Jesus Christ, the Greek word “gennao” which can have a physical or spiritual meaning is used for “yawlad.”(6) Again the context is very clear. A spiritual anointing is proclaimed. The source of Jesus Christ’s immaterial nature is proclaimed as being not only from God but actually God in him.

No one, Muslim or Christian, would deny that Jesus Christ is the Messiah, المسيح in Arabic. This Messiah, المسيح , is clearly referred to as “the Son of God” in both the Jewish and Christian Scriptures. It is these scriptures that the Qur’an affirms throughout as true revelation from God.(7)

Surah 21:26 states, “And they say: ‘The Most Gracious has taken a son.’ Glory to Him! they are (but) servants raised to honour.” Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Ph.D. and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan in their translation state that “son” here refers to angels, Jesus, Ezra and others. Here the word “son” is the Arabic word ﻮﻟﺪ, walad. It is interesting that the response to this is that these are “servants raised to honour.” The Bible also teaches that prophets are honoured servants. That is a significant part of the meaning behind the term, “son of God”. The issue is this, how and why are they honoured?

From its first mention, "son of God" is a term of honour in the Holy Bible. King David, Hazrat Daoud, and King Soloman, Hazrat Suliman, are each specifically referred to as a "son" of God in the Holy Bible.(8) In each of these references it is clear to see that "son" meant one who was loved, chosen and given authority and power through the Spirit of God. "Spirit" here does not refer to an angel or even the breath of God, but the very being, nature and essence of God. However, the Qur'an never addresses their sonship specifically. Their sonship was different than that of Jesus Christ. They were called sons of God because the Spirit of God came upon them to give them power, wisdom and authority to reign as kings over the bani Israel. This type of sonship is one particular type of spiritual sonship. It is that of any human being upon whom God's Spirit came. However, the sonship of Jesus Christ is different. It also is spiritual but in a significantly different way. Jesus was not just a grown human being upon whom the Spirit of God came. He was the very nature and essence of God who came in human flesh.(9) Since God is spirit, as stated in John 4:24, this nature and essence of God is spiritual.

This idea of God in flesh is, also, often expressed in the Injil by the use of the term “Son” on its own, or the term “Son of Man.” This term “Son of Man” is derived from the revelation of “one like a son of man", revealed to the prophet Daniel over 500 years before Jesus lived.(10) It is obvious that this “Son of Man” is no ordinary man. He was one who received worship and honour due only to God, though he has the form and appearance of a man. In fact Jesus used this term to describe himself more often than "Son of God" since "Son of Man" did not carry the connotation of an earthly political and military kingship that some people understood the term “Son of God” to mean.(11) Instead, it expressed a real but spiritual authority and pointed back to the prophecy of the prophet Daniel. The Son of Man in Daniel's prophecy was one who had the form of man but who had the authority and character of God and who rightfully received worship due only to God. It was because Jesus used this term, "Son of Man", that the Jews accused him of blasphemy. Yet using this term, he continued to do miracles, rise from the dead and ascend into heaven, which allowed the people only two choices. Either they must believe he was God in the flesh or they must believe he was from the devil. Since there is no doubt that he claimed to be God, to simply believe he was only a prophet or a good man would be claiming that God allowed this power to be used by one who was rivaling God. This would be impossible for God to do.


In his biography of Muhammad, Sirat Rasul Allah, Ibn Hisham quotes the Qur'an as stating that the Christians used the term ibn allah, ﺍﺑﻦ in reference to Jesus.(12) This is strongly denounced right along with the Jew, 'Uzayr, being denounced as the ibn allah ﺍﺑﻦ with no distinction between the two. Yet there is a large difference between the two. 'Uzayr (Ezra) even as a true prophet of God, would have been no more than a human being on whom God's authority, power, or Holy Spirit (not Jibra’il) came. However the Holy Bible teaches that Jesus existed from eternity as a divine spiritual being, the Word, who was God (John 1:1), and at a point in time he took on flesh (John 1:14). Yet, the Qur’an never states in Sura 9:30 nor in its immediate context why the sonship of 'Uzayr or Jesus is denounced nor which meaning, the physical or the spiritual, is being denounced. One must go to Sahih Muslim to find the reason that calling Jesus Christ ibn allah ﺍﺑﻦ is denounced--because he is not the walad ﻮﻟﺪ , physical son, of God.(13) In fact every time that the sonship of Jesus Christ is denounced in the Qur’an and the reason why the denunciation is given, an inaccurate view of the Bible is evident. Ibn Hisham brings further light to this by pointing out that Muhammad thought that the statements of the Christians from Najran about Jesus, diminished God's power and authority, denied the Oneness of God and made Jesus a rival to God.(14) Yusuf Ali, too, shows this same understanding of the phrase "son of God" by his comment on Sura 9:30, equating Christians with blasphemers by accusing them of, "Taking men for gods or sons of God."(15) However, Jesus' Sonship in the Bible which is always spiritual in nature is never presented as diminishing God's power or authority, denying the Oneness of God nor making himself a rival to God. The will, authority and power of Jesus' divine spirit is never in conflict with the will, authority and power of God, because Jesus was the Word. This eternal Word of God became flesh without ceasing to be God or beginning to compete with God.

A few observations are necessary here. First, Ibn Hisham states that the Christians from Najran believed that Jesus was the walad of God ﻮﻟﺪ .(16) Second, there is no evidence in Ibn Hisham’s Sirat Rasul Allah that they claimed to believe this in the physical sense. Ibn Hisham states here also that, starting at the beginning of Sura 3, more than 80 verses were revealed as a result of the visit of the Christians from Najran. The fact that there is no specific refutation to their claim using the word walad ﻮﻟﺪ in the Qur’an in the whole of Sura 3 makes it difficult to ascertain what they said or meant. We only know that it would be against their scriptures to use walad ﻮﻟﺪ in the physical sense. This is plain when we examine the Scriptures in their original languages as well as the commentaries written by early Jewish and Christian scholars.(17) No honest scholar ever understood the Biblical passages speaking of “the Son of God” in a physical way. Third, it is clear that the Qur'an and the Bible do not agree regarding Jesus' nature. The Bible presents him not only as a prophet, but actually more than a prophet--his spiritual nature being the very nature of God.

When we look at Sura 5:18, we see that when men claimed to be "ibn allah" ﺍﺑﻦ the Qur'an presents its understanding of the phrase "ibn allah" ﺍﺑﻦ as those who were more than men and who were without sin or at least not subject to punishment for sin. Ibn Hisham confirms this understanding. We see this because it is stated that they were "but mortals, of those men He [Allah] has created" and were subject to punishment for sin.(18) Yet the Qur'an, the Muslim traditions and the Bible all agree that Jesus, unlike any other prophet, had no sin or even a fault or mistake ever in his life.

Ibn Hisham records the following, concerning the verses that came down, denying Jesus being the Son of God in the context of the coming of the Christians from Najran to Muhammad:

They argue that he is the son of God in that they say he had no known father; and he spoke in the cradle and this is something that no child of Adam has ever done.(19)

As a result of what these Christians said, Ibn Hisham records that the revelation concerning Jesus speaking in childhood in Sura 3:45-49 and Sura 19:27-35 came along with other verses about Jesus' life. However, as already mentioned when we look at what the Christians are reported to have said, we see that the reason the Christians from Najran gave, is not the reason the Bible gives why God called Jesus his Son.

In response to this, Norman Anderson, formerly Professor of Oriental Laws and Director of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies in the University of London states,

Christians, moreover, do not claim that Jesus was the Son of God because he was born of a virgin. On the contrary, it was because he was Son of God, when that term is properly understood, that he was born in that miraculous way.(20) (Bold emphasis, mine.)

Professor Anderson's statement is in absolute agreement with the Bible.


In his article, “Jesus the Son of God: A Study of the Terms Ibn and Walad in the Qur’an and the Tafsīr Tradition”, Mahmud Mustafa Ayoub cites the writings of a number of Muslim scholars from different eras and persuasions of Islam. The following is a table based on the specific statements he highlights showing their understanding of “divine sonship” and therefore why they objected to it.

Understandings of and Reasons for

Muslim Commentators’ Objections to “Divine Sonship”

Sonship would imply a creative act

Possibility of having a consort

God’s need for an offspring or child

To beget is to be begotten —Creator cannot do this

Equal Partner implies separate wills

Physical offspring is limited to time and space










Ismailī Haqqī


abū Ja’far al-Tūsi




















Ayoub sums up his observations by stating, “ . . . It must be observed that the language in most of them is the same. They contrast God’s transcendence, omnipotence, origination of all things, and sovereignty over all His creation with human non-self-sufficiency, and hence the need for offspring.”(21) As we look at the reasons for which these Muslims scholars reject their understanding of the “sonship” of Jesus Christ, we see that none of these are even in the slightest way implied in the Holy Bible. God’s taking on flesh was not out of his need but ours!

The Arabic word walad corresponds to the Hebrew word walad which shares a common root with the Hebrew word “yawlad” in Psalm 2 in the Holy Bible. Ayoub makes some important observations. Though he fails to specifically address the use of the Hebrew word “yawlad” in Psalm 2, he does state that the Arabic word walad ﻮﻟﺪ , “primarily signifies physical generation and sonship.”(22) This is important for two reasons. First, it does acknowledge the fact that even though, primarily, the Arabic word walad ﻮﻟﺪ is used for a physical sonship, like the Hebrew word walad this is not the only meaning for which it must be used. Second, from this we can begin to see that the meaning that God clearly ordained for the word walad in Psalm 2, referring to a real but spiritual sonship, has usually been taken by Muslims in a physical sense and therefore clearly misunderstood. This helps us understand why in the Qur’an only the term walad ﻮﻟﺪ was used to denounce the sonship of Jesus, except in Sura 9:30, as cited above. Ayoub points out that Abū Qurra, a Syro-Arabic Christian theologian and cleric,

. . . would leave no doubt in the mind of a Muslim reader that Jesus is the son of God, engendered by Him from eternity. For, while Abū Qurra uses ibn for son, he always uses the verb walada, to engender, or give birth to, when speaking of God the father and Jesus His son.(23)

As we have seen, it is very clear that this “engendering” in the Holy Bible refers to the divine nature of Jesus Christ and never the physical nature of Jesus Christ. Ayoub also states that most Muslim commentators agree “that the word ibn, ﺍﺑﻦ is used metaphorically in the Gospel to express a relationship of love and intimacy.”(24) He further cities Muhammad Mahmud Hijāzī, Muhammad Rashīd Ridā, Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī and al-Alūsī as making specific statements to this affect using words such as love, high honour, and favour. Again, two things are important in this statement. First, it acknowledges that the word ibn, ﺍﺑﻦ was legitimately in the Christian scriptures and was rightfully used by them. Second, it acknowledges one important aspect in the meaning of Jesus’ sonship. Unfortunately, as we have already seen and as we will further see, the significance and the reason behind that supreme relationship of love, favour, high honour and intimacy as clearly stated in the Holy Bible has been misunderstood by Muslims.


When a human father has a physical son, that son reflects the humanness of his father but he has a separate spirit, will and mind. Therefore he would have a separate accountability before God. Because he has a separate spirit, will and mind, he could at some time or another contend, rival and seek to oppose his father. If the "sonship" of Jesus Christ were seen in the same way, he also could eventually oppose and rival God.

However, that is definitely not the view of "sonship" that the Bible teaches. The Bible never teaches that the "sonship" of Jesus Christ was the result of any physical union of two partners. Nor does it imply that God is a created being. The Bible clearly teaches that God is eternal.(25) The "sonship" of Jesus Christ was purely spiritual in nature. The immaterial nature of Jesus Christ was made of the same substance as God--his will, purpose and mind being the same as that of God with no conflict, but perfect harmony. His flesh was flesh and was not God--it was only where the essence of God dwelt to reveal himself to the world without the essence itself being physically seen. The Bible also clearly teaches that God is spirit.(26) Jesus himself said that flesh comes from flesh but spirit comes from spirit.(27) The immaterial essence of God that dwelt in him according to the will of God, was God’s immaterial essence--not separated from God nor in conflict with God. The flesh of Jesus Christ responded perfectly to God in every situation of life because that God’s immaterial essence in him kept his flesh pure. This is why it is important to realise that Jesus Christ was fully God and fully man--human emotions being expressed without human sin. His flesh was not God even though the nature or essence, which indwelt that flesh was the very essence of God to whom he would return shortly. Perhaps it was for this reason that Jesus rarely asked people to worship him though he never refused their true worship. He asked people to worship God, yet claiming to be equal with God and deserving the honour that is due only to God.(28) He wanted people to understand the true character of God before they worshipped God. He wanted people to realise that the essence of God was in him. This is why it is important to first understand what the Holy Bible--Taurat, Zabur, Anbia (Writings of the Jewish Prophets) and Injil teach about the nature of God, so we can understand the true spiritual nature of Jesus Christ in the Injil.

GOD IS LIGHT ( ﺭﻭﻧ )

Those who have a difficult time understanding these things, should remember the fact that God is light.(29) Since God uses the illustration of light to describe himself, we must think about this. What kind of light is meant? Is it like the light in the sun or light bulb that people squint to look at or like the light that falls on a page and enters the eye, illuminating the words? Is it like the light that we back away from or like the light that comes to help us? In reality we know that they are one and the same light. One is simply concentrated in one spot--the source--which needs to be bright so that the light that falls on the page is the right intensity to meet our needs and relate to us as men. Yet, when we turn the light switch off, we realise they are one and the same light. Since they are one intrinsically, they are intrinsically inseparable but they are also practically inseparable in completing the work they do. In the same way when some people saw Jesus, they didn't realise he was God because he didn't have the appearance of God--the God that appeared to the Prophet Moses ﻤﻮﺳﻰ ﺤﺿﺮﺖ was too bright to look at. Only after Jesus Christ had ascended up into heaven did many people realise fully who he was.


It is also helpful to note the difference between the "trinity" of the Qur'an and the "trinity" of the Bible. The "trinity" is alluded to in the Qur'an in Sura 5:73 in such a way that Yusuf Ali in his translation of the meaning of the Qur'an after, "They disbelieve who say: Allah is one of three " adds the phrase "(In a Trinity)". Sura 5:116 states,

"And behold! Allah will say:
"O Jesus the son of Mary!
Didst thou say unto men,
'Take me and my mother
For two gods beside Allah'?"

In light of the context of the verses that follow this verse, we see that this is the Qur'an's presentation of the “Christian trinity”. Ibn Hisham states that this presentation of the "trinity" was being promoted by the Christians from Najran.(30) Yet, the Qur'an's presentation of the "trinity" is definitely not what God has revealed about himself, Jesus Christ, or Mary (Miriam), the mother of Jesus, in the Bible. From the Bible we know that God has no other equal, Mary is not God's wife nor was she divine and Jesus Christ was not God's physical Son.

Again in Sura 4:171 it states,

Christ Jesus the son of Mary
Was (no more than
A Messenger of Allah,
And His Word,
Which He bestowed on Mary,
And a Spirit proceeding
From Him: so believe
In Allah and His Messengers.
Say not "Three": desist
It will be better for you:
For Allah is One God:
Glory be to Him:
(Far Exalted is He) above
Having a son.

This portion is addressed to the People of the Book, which could include Jews and Christians. Since the Jews did not refer to Jesus as the Son of God, this has to be in response to Christians. Here, again, in the last line in the negation of God having a son, the Arabic word, walad ﻮﻟﺪ , is used. As we have seen, the scriptures of the Christians teach that there is One God and never refers to Jesus as the physical son, walad, ﻮﻟﺪ of God. The phrases "Son of God" or "son of God" in the Christian scriptures is only used in a spiritual, metaphorical sense.


The term "Son of God" is used so often by those who follow Jesus and believe on him that some people may think that the phrase "Son of God" is part of a creed that must be recited by anyone who wants to be a Christian, in a similar way that Muslims must recite a creed to become a Muslim and to declare their continued allegiance to their faith. Because many Muslims have been taught that Christians believe that Jesus was the physical son of God, they naturally find this very repulsive. Though some might long to believe in Jesus they would never seriously think to do so for the reason that they may be expected to use this term. This term would be misunderstood and very repulsive to their family and friends. The fact is, no one is required to refer to Jesus using the term, the Son of God, to be a true Christian. Of course, one would need to understand the true meaning behind the term and definitely believe the true meaning behind the term. But there are other words to describe the same concept, such as a proper understanding of the prophet Daniel's "Son of Man" prophecy or the expression, "the most beloved vice-regent of God who was the very nature and essence of God, making him God Himself in human flesh."


Some people ask, “Was Jesus Christ God or the son of God?” As we have seen, referring to someone using the term "son of God" does not mean that person is God. But the term "the Son of God" points to the fact that, spiritually, Jesus Christ was God. As we have already seen, this term refers to his eternal nature and essence. It also many times refers to him being an anointed vice-regent of God, endued with the power, blessing and authority of God because of this eternal nature and essence. "Son" is also used to express the fact that he was not just a servant. Even though he submitted as a servant, he was considered a son, who had inheritance, privilege, honour and special love. He was not just in the house, but of the house.(31) Jesus Christ was also called "the Son", which not only included these last three meanings but also the concept of "the Son of Man" given in the prophecy of the prophet Daniel. (Daniel 7:13-14)


As we have already seen, "son" can be used in difference ways. Egyptians are called "sons of the Nile." The Qur'an refers to a traveler as a "son of the road" (ibn al-sabeel, ﺍﻟﺴﺑﻴﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ).(32) Daughters are called "sons" in many cultures by fathers who love them very much. In Pakistan and Iran devout followers of God are called farzandan-i-tawheed, ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻔﺮﺯﻨﺪﺎﻦِ , meaning "sons of unity."(33) Any English dictionary shows that "son" is used in a figurative or metaphorical sense as the "inheritor of a quality."(34) So it is clear that there is no problem in using the term "son of God" in referring to Jesus Christ. The Bible even refers to Jesus Christ as the Son of God, which not only suggests a special relationship with God but it also means that he is the Son above all sons--the one whose relationship with God is superior to anyone's relationship with God. This kind of claim definitely needs the evidence to back it up. To understand what kind of relationship Jesus had with God we need to look at what the Holy Bible says about him.


As we have seen, the Bible presents Jesus as the beloved Son of God and the Son of Man. This Son was prophesied by the prophets; he had a human nature but was called “the Son of God" because of his indestructible, spiritual nature, which was proved by his resurrection from the dead.(35) His message was for all people for all times.(36)

The Injil states,

. . . in these last days [God] has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe. The Son is the radiance of God's glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven. So he became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs. For to which of the angels did God ever say, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father"? Or again, "I will be his Father and he will be my Son"? And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, he says, "Let all God's angels worship him." In speaking of the angels he says, "He makes his angels winds, his servants flames of fire." But about the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever, and righteousness will be the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy." He also says, "In the beginning, O Lord you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But you remain the same, and your years will never end. To which of the angels did God every, "Sit at my right hand until I made your enemies a footstool for your feet"?(37)

Because through him and for him all things, mankind included, were made,(38) and because of his unique origin and power which caused him to rise victoriously back to life from the dead, he has been appointed to be the judge of all mankind.(39) These and many more things about him are recorded in the Injil.


The result of him being the Son of God, is that eventually he might destroy the devil and his works. Being God, he had all the power and authority that was needed. Being man he could identify with the sufferings of man, and offer the sacrifice of his life that never needed to be repeated, rescuing man from spiritual death--separation from God--giving him eternal life and peace from the shame of sin and disobedience.(40)

This message is a message of hope because as human beings we deserve the wrath of God. God says that everyone deserves his wrath and even if we kept the whole law and yet failed in only one point, we would be guilty of breaking the whole law.(41) Because Jesus Christ has been appointed to be the final judge, we know that we will not escape God's judgment. Therefore, we must recognize the seriousness of just one sin and it's full penalty--eternal separation from God--and humbly receive in thanks the gift of Jesus' right standing with God that Jesus Christ is willing to share with us. Because of this Son, Jesus Christ, we have the possibility of spending eternity in the presence of God. Only through this process can true repentance and salvation take place that truly gives glory and honour and credit to God.(42)

May God bless you with his peace!

Contact the author


(1) Wehr, Hans. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. London: MacDonald and Evans Ltd. ©1961, p.76.

(2) Ibid, pp. 1097-1098.

(3) The following are the verses that negate the possibility of God having a son using the word walad ﻮﻟﺪ :
Sura 2:116 -- They say: "Allah hath begotten a son": Glory be to Him.-Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: everything renders worship to Him.
Sura 4:171 -- O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) a messenger of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His messengers. Say not "Trinity": desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is one Allah: Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.
Sura 6: 100,101 -- Yet they make the Jinns equals with Allah, though Allah did create the Jinns; and they falsely, having no knowledge, attribute to Him sons and daughters. Praise and glory be to Him! (for He is) above what they attribute to Him!; To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: How can He have a son when He hath no consort? He created all things, and He hath full knowledge of all things.
Sura 10:68 -- They say: "Allah hath begotten a son!" - Glory be to Him! He is self-sufficient! His are all things in the heavens and on earth! No warrant have ye for this! say ye about Allah what ye know not?
Sura 18:4 -- Further, that He may warn those (also) who say, "Allah hath begotten a son":
Sura 19:35 -- It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be", and it is.
Sura 19:88-92 -- They say: "(Allah) Most Gracious has begotten a son!" Indeed ye have put forth a thing most monstrous! At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin, That they should invoke a son for (Allah) Most Gracious. For it is not consonant with the majesty of (Allah) Most Gracious that He should beget a son.
Sura 21:26 -- And they say: "(Allah) Most Gracious has begotten offspring." Glory to Him! they are (but) servants raised to honour.
Sura 23:91 -- No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him: (if there were many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have lorded it over others! Glory to Allah! (He is free) from the (sort of) things they attribute to Him!
Sura 25:2 -- He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: no son has He begotten, nor has He a partner in His dominion: it is He who created all things, and ordered them in due proportions.
Sura 39:4 -- Had Allah wished to take to Himself a son, He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He doth create: but Glory be to Him! (He is above such things.) He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.
Sura 43:81 -- Say: "If (Allah) Most Gracious had a son, I would be the first to worship."
Sura 72:3 -- 'And Exalted is the Majesty of our Lord: He has taken neither a wife nor a son.
Sura 112:3 -- He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;

(4) The Holy Bible, Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5; 5:5.

(5) Harris, Walke, and Archer. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Moody Press: Chicago, Ill. ©1980, p. 378-380 shows that the Hebrew word “walad” can have a physical or metaphorical meaning. It states the following concerning its metaphorical meanings: “The word is often used in a figurative sense. Thus it may refer to a city or nation as having given birth to its inhabitants. . . .” “In most every instance actual paternity is represented by the Hiphil and a more general relationship like relationship of peoples . . . uses the Qal. Thus Ps 2:7 is not causative, but refers to a relation of love.” It goes on to say, “ ‘yālad in Ps. 2:7 (note that it is not Hiphil) refers to the relationship of love between the Father and the Son.” Wehr, Hans. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. London: MacDonald and Evans Ltd. ©1961, pp. 1097-1098 shows that the Arabic word walad ﻮﻟﺪ can have a physical or metaphorical meaning. It gives the following metaphorical meanings of walada”, the root word for walad ﻮﻟﺪ : “to be produced; to cause, occasion, originate, grow, develop, arise, proceed, follow, result.”

(6) Thayer, Joseph H., Thayers’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, Michigan. © 1977 p. 113.

(7) The following verses from the Qur’an show the Torah to be true at the time of Jesus: Sura 19:12, 3:48, 66:12, 3:49-50, 61:6, 5:49, 5:113

The following verses from the Qur’an showing that the Torah and the Gospel were true and unchanged at the time of Muhammad: Sura 34:31, 35:31, 10:37, 12:111, 6:154-157, 40:69-70, 46:12, 46:29-30, 2:91, 3:3, 4:162-163, 9:111, 5:51

The following Muslim scholars admit that the text of the Bible hasn’t been changed: Ahmed, Sir Syed . The Seventh Discourse. (Reprinted from The Mohamedan Commentary on the Holy Bible). ©1911. Regarding the scriptures of the Jews and Christians, Sir Syed Ahmed cites Iman Muhammad Isma’il Bukhari stating in his book that “there is no man that could corrupt a single word that has proceeded from God”; Ibn Taimiya in his Fathu’l-Bari when questioned on the meaning of tahreef stating that “doctors of former times had taken it in two senses; some maintaining that it meant an interpolation of words; and some that it meant the misrepresentation of the meaning of a subject; and that many arguments had been adduced in support of the latter opinion.”; Shah Wali Ullah in his Fuzu’l-Kabir saying that “the original text was not tampered with”; Iman Fakhru’d-din Razi in his commentary on the authority of ibn ‘Abbas stating “. . . in the opinion of eminent doctors and theologians, it was not practical thus to corrupt the text; because these scriptures were generally known and widely circulated having been handed down from generation to generation. No interpolation therefore could be made in them . . .”

(8) The Holy Bible, Psalm 2 and 1 Chronicles 17:13.

(9) The Holy Bible, John 1:1,14, Micah 5:2, Luke 1:35, John 4:24, Philippians 2:5-8.

(10) The Holy Bible, Daniel 7:13-14. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., © 1979, Vol. 1, p. 859, states, “The last recorded vision of Daniel occurred on the banks of the river Tigris in the third year of Cyrus (536 B.C.) . . .”

(11) Eisenman, Robert and Michael Wise. Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. New York: Penguin Books, Ó 1992, pp. 68-71.

(12) Ibn Hisham, translated by A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, Karachi: Oxford University Press, p. 163, 271, 272, Ó 1955.

(13) Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, chapter 81, Number 0352. Rendered into English by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi, Idara Isha’at-e-Diniyat (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India. Ó 2001, p. 132. In Sahih Muslim when Christians state that Jesus is the Son, ibn ﺍﺑﻦ of God it is negated by the statement, “You tell a lie: Allah did not take for Himself either a spouse or a son [walad ﻮﻟﺪ].”

(14) Ibn Hisham, translated by A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, Karachi: Oxford University Press, p. 272. Ó 1955.

(15) In his commentary in The Holy Qur'an: English translation of the meanings and Commentary, Revised and Edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches, IFTA, Call and Guidance, Ó 1413 H. , p 507, Yusuf Ali states, “Taking men for gods or sons of Allah was not a new thing. All ancient mythologies have fables of that kind. There was less excuse for such blasphemies after the Prophets of Allah had clearly explained out true relation to Allah than in the times of primitive ignorance and superstition.”

(16) Ibn Hisham, translated by A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, Karachi: Oxford University Press, p. 271-272, Ó 1955. For the Arabic, Sirat Rasul Allah, go to

(17) The British Library contain the Greek manuscripts, Siniaticus and Alexandrinus, which date to the 4th and 5th century respectively. A complete Hebrew text of the Old Testament called the Aleppo Manuscript dates to A.D. 930. In addition, all but the book of Esther is verified by fragments dating from before Muhammad. Almost all of the New Testament can be reproduced from the writings of the early Christian scholars.

(18) Ibn Hisham, translated by A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, Karachi: Oxford University Press, p. 266, Ó 1955.

(19) Ibid, p. 271.

(20) Anderson, Norman, Islam in the Modern World, chapter 5, Ó 1990.

(21) Haddad, Y. Y and W. Z. Haddad (ed.) Christian-Muslim Encounters, “Jesus the Son of God: A Study of the Terms Ibn and Walad in the Qur’an and the Tafsīr Tradition”, by Mahmud Mustafa Ayoub, University Press of Florida, Ó1995, p. 74.

(22) Ibid, p. 66.

(23) Ibid, p. 70.

(24) Ibid, p. 72-73.

(25) The Holy Bible, Deuteronomy 33:27, 1 Timothy 1:17, Titus 1:2, Hebrews 9:14, 1 Peter 5:10.

(26) The Holy Bible, John 4:24.

(27) The Holy Bible, John 3:6.

(28) The Holy Bible, Matthew 2:11; Matthew 14:33; Matthew 21:12-17; John 5:16-23; Matthew 8:2; Matthew 9:18; Matthew 15:25; Matthew 28:9,17; This is in contrast to the Apostle Peter refusing worship in Acts 10:25 because he was “only a man”.

(29) The Holy Bible, Exodus 33:18; 34:29-35, Ezekiel 10:4; Psalm 104:30-31, John 1:18, John 4:24, 1 Timothy 6:16, 1 John 1:5; 4:12, Revelation 21:23.

(30) Ibn Hisham, translated by A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, Karachi: Oxford University Press, p. 272, Ó 1955.

(31) The Holy Bible, John 8:34-36.

(32) Sura 2:215.

(33) "The Pakistan Post", 14 February 2003 (Picture with words underlined in red).

(34) Thompson, Della, (ed.), Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, © 1993, p. 870.

(35) The Holy Bible, Romans 1:1-4.

(36) The Holy Bible, Romans 1:5; Romans 10:9-12; Hebrews 3:7.

37) The Holy Bible, Hebrews 1:2-13.

(38) The Holy Bible, Colossians 1:15-18.

(39) The Holy Bible, Acts 17:31.

(40) The Holy Bible, Hebrews chapter 2 and following.

(41) The Holy Bible, Isaiah 53; Ezra 9:15; Psalm 143:2; Romans 3; Romans 6:23; James 2:10.

(42) The Holy Bible, Romans 3:9-20, 23; 6:23; James 4:10, 1 John 1:7-9; John 3:16; Colossians 1:9-14.

Scripture taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NIV®
Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by
All rights reserved.

Qur'anic references from the Yusuf Ali translation
Revised and Edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches,
IFTA, Call and Guidance, 1413 H.

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