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Saturday, November 28, 2009

Carol A. Valentine - Elizabeth Dilling - Copyright Notice

Copyright Statement

US Constitution, Article I, Section 8:

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

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The correct stance on copyright matters concerning printed material has been most elegantly expressed by Lubomyr Prytulak of the Ukrainian Archives ( There is nothing to be gained by rephrasing his statement, which we adopt as our own. See below.

Our specific policy is as follows:

All original work is copyrighted by Carol A. Valentine, on loan to Come and Hear™, a project of Public Action, Inc., a Virginia corporation. Permission is granted for unlimited non-profit redistribution by mirror web sites, recorded media such as CDs and DVDs, file transfer networks, or any other means. This permission is granted on the following conditions:

  1. The text is not altered.
  2. The integrity of the piece or any part thereof is preserved and not taken out of context.
  3. That the copyright notice (referring to this page) is included with every copy.

Given the vicissitudes of modern life, the lack of guarantee for all men's fortunes, we urge all interested readers to copy this website to their own equipment at the earliest opportunity.

The non-original works incorporated in this website fall into the following classes:

  • The Babylonian Talmud: When Elizabeth Dilling published her book, The Plot Against Christianity, it contained hundreds of pages copied from the Soncino Talmud. In the 40 years since her book was published, Soncino Press has not ever pursued a copyright claim against her. Doubtlessly, Soncino understood that no serious religion would attempt to suppress discussion of their holy books in such a manner.

    There is a principle in common law that, when private property is permitted for public use over an extended period of time, it cannot be thereafter be denied to the public. This principle is called public easement. In such manner have many trademarks passed into the public domain.

    In our case, however, the situation is even clearer. This Come and Hear™ presentation was created from the 1961 printing of the Soncino Talmud, which was published without copyright reservation.

    Making portions of this work available on the World Wide Web is equivalent to displaying it on the shelves of a library open to the public. Our purpose is educational: we do not seek financial gain from the ingenuity of others. Moreover, our hypertext presentation cannot not be considered a replacement for the printed volumes. We recommend purchasing the original work — in the 1961 edition, if possible.

    We respond to an important public challenge: America is rapidly becoming Talmudized:

    • In 1991, the US Congress declared the Talmudic Noahide Laws to be the basis "upon which our great Nation was founded" (see America's New Government Church). Under Noahide Law regulations, idolaters (which includes Christians by definition) are put to death.

    • In 1999, the Supreme Court agreed to consider an amicus brief based wholly on Talmudic law (see Death Penalty and Talmud Law: Sentence and Execution).

    • In November 2002, the American Orthodox Jewish community held a kosher dinner in the Supreme Court building to celebrate the establishment of the National Institute for Judaic Law. The dinner was attended by 200 people, including three Supreme Court Justices. The purpose of the Institute is to introduce Talmudic laws into the US legal system and law schools.

    Since the Talmud is becoming the template for public law in the United States, it is clearly the civic right and the civic duty of every American to become intimately acquainted with the Talmud. We step in with our hypertext version — in part — because an indexed, uncensored, unabridged Talmud is unavailable at local public libraries.

  • The Jewish Religion: Its Influence Today: Our research indicates that no one holds clear title to the work and our publication is not an infringement on any legitimate claim. Moreover, this book is currently out of print and unavailable to the public. The fundamental purpose of the copyright law is to "promote the progress of science and useful arts" by protecting the interests of the author. We believe that were Elizabeth Dilling alive today, she would have a vigorous interest in making her writings available to the public. Seen from this light, it is obvious that Come and Hear™ is protecting her interest.

    Making this work available in hypertext form on the World Wide Web is equivalent to displaying it on the shelves of a library open to the public.

  • All Other Works are covered by the Fair Use clause of the copyright law. Making these works available on the World Wide Web is equivalent to displaying them on the shelves of a library open to the public. Our purpose is educational: we do not seek financial gain from the ingenuity of others.

The copyright statement on the Ukrainian Archive site is succinct and elegant. We have reproduced and adopted the sections applicable to Come and Hear™, reproduced below.

Comment Concerning Copyright

The material in the Come and Hear™] site is made available as an educational and research tool on a non-commercial and fair dealing or fair use basis.

I share with many others the view that the act of displaying a printed document on the Internet as the equivalent of displaying the said document on the shelves of a library open to the public, but with the advantages that Internet publication can be accomplished at reduced cost and that the published items become accessible more rapidly and to a wider audience.

Interested readers are encouraged where possible to buy the original document from the publisher, which being on the printed page is not only handier to read and to work with, but is more detailed and complete, and is more likely to remain on the purchaser's shelf a decade or two from now than is the electronic copy to remain on the Internet or on the reader's hard drive for the same length of time. With respect to the internet reproduction of photographs or works of art it may similarly be said that the Internet versions are typically severely cropped and of low resolution in comparison to the original hard-copy versions, which again places the Internet version in the role of an inducement to the user to consult the hard-copy original for a more informative or edifying experience. It is acknowledged that in order to survive, publishers must be paid for their printed materials, and electronic reproduction of these materials in whole or in part is permissible only to the degree that it does not detract from hard-copy sales, and more particularly where it stimulates them.

As the Internet versions of hard-copy publications are inferior in detail, completeness, and longevity it is not possible for the former to compete with the latter; rather, Internet versions play a supportive role for hard-copy publications, pointing to their existence and sparking interest in them. Thus, the beneficiaries of Internet publication are primarily the reader who is given readier access to the posted materials, the author whose work is given broader dissemination, and the original publisher whose name is brought to wider attention. In fact, Internet publication sometimes approximates, and plays a role similar to that of, promotional material that the original publisher would otherwise have to pay fees to procure, or that he in parallel already pays fees to procure.

Relevant to the question of copyright might be the following laws on Canadian "fair dealing" and US "fair use," Article 19 of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, and as well an excerpt on Fundamental Freedoms from the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms:

Canadian Fair Dealing

Canada's Bill C-32 (passed by parliament, but not yet declared)

29. Fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study does not infringe copyright.
29.1 Fair dealing for the purpose of criticism or review does not infringe copyright if the following are mentioned:
(a) the source; and
(b) if given in the source, the name of the
(i) author, in the case of a work,
(ii) performer, in the case of a performer's performance,
(iii) maker, in the case of a sound recording, or
(iv) broadcaster, in the case of a communication signal.
29.2 Fair dealing for the purpose of news reporting does not infringe copyright if the following are mentioned:
(a) the source; and
(b) if given in the source, the name of the
(i) author, in the case of a work,
(ii) performer, in the case of a performer's performance,
(iii) maker, in the case of a sound recording, or
(iv) broadcaster, in the case of a communication signal.

U.S. Fair Use

Section 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair Use

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include -
1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Article 19 of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights

ARTICLE 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948)

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:
(a) freedom of conscience and religion;
(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication;
(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and
(d) freedom of association.

Section 2(b) protects all forms of expression, whether oral, written, pictorial, sculpture, music, dance or film. The freedom of expression referred to, moreover, extends to those engaged in expression for profit and those who wish to express the ideas of others, and to the recipients as well as to the originators of communication.... ... The burden is on the person challenging government action to ... show that the activity in issue promotes at least one of the principles and values underlying the freedom. Those principles and values are: that seeking and attaining the truth is an inherently good activity.... ... The term "expression" embraces all content of expression irrespective of the particular message sought to be conveyed and no matter how invidious and obnoxious the message.

The Pentagon Papers

Also relevant to the use of copyrighted materials on the Internet are precedents such as the publication by The New York Times and The Washington Post in 1971 of the Pentagon Papers — classified documents relating to the Vietnam War, stolen from the Pentagon by Daniel Ellsberg; as well as publication over the Internet of the Tobacco Papers stolen from Brown and Williamson by employee Dr. Jeffrey Wigand.

Concerning the publication of the Pentagon Papers, I reproduce a few quotations below from The New York Times Staff, The Pentagon Papers: The Secret History of the Vietnam War, Bantam, New York, 1971. The relevance of the Pentagon Papers quotations lies firstly in that the freedom of dissemination of information which is not only prized, but is essential to the functioning — indeed the survival — of our society is not only a freedom of the press, but rather a freedom of dissemination of information through all media, including today's Internet. The relevance of the Pentagon Papers quotations below lies secondly in that the institutions susceptible to corruption are not only governments, but also non-governmental institutions — sometimes more powerful than governments — which therefore need just as badly to have corrected their tendencies toward secrecy or toward broadcasting manipulative disinformation. Indeed, sometimes it may be the case that the press itself stands as a monolith practicing deception upon the people, and in such a case would fall the responsibility of correction to non-press channels of communication, among them the Internet. To imagine that the press was immune from the same temptations to secrecy and disinformation as is the government or business would be unrealistic; and any such argument coming from the press must be greeted with the same incredulity as it would be coming from the government or business. The freedom to disseminate information, thus, must be seen as a freedom not only of the press to expose deception by government, but as a freedom by all to expose deception by all, and more generally a freedom of all to communicate to all.

What was the reason that impelled The Times to publish this material in the first place? The basic reason is ... that we believe "that it is in the interest of the people of this country to be informed...." A fundamental responsibility of the press in this democracy is to publish information that helps the people of the United States to understand the processes of their own government, especially when those processes have been clouded over in a hazy veil of public dissimulation and even deception.

As a newspaper that takes seriously its obligation and its responsibilities to the public, we believe that, once this material fell into our hands, it was not only in the interests of the American people to publish it but, even more emphatically, it would have been an abnegation of responsibility and a renunciation of our obligations under the First Amendment not to have published it. (Excerpt from a New York Timeseditorial of June 16, 1971, in The Pentagon Papers, 1971, p. 644)

"A cantankerous press, an obstinate press, an ubiquitous press, must be suffered by those in authority in order to preserve the even greater values of freedom of expression and the right of the people to know," Judge Gurfein declared. "These are troubled times. There is no greater safety valve for discontent and cynicism about the affairs of government than freedom of expression in any form." (Excerpt from a New York Times editorial of June 20, 1971, in The Pentagon Papers, 1971, p. 645)

The material was not published by The Times for purposes of recrimination or to establish scapegoats or to heap blame on any individual in civilian or military ranks. It was published because the American public has a right to have it and because, when it came into the hands of The Times, it was its function as a free and uncensored medium of information to make it public. This same principle held for The Washington Post when it too obtained some of the papers. To have acted otherwise would have been to default on a newspaper's basic obligation to the American people under the First Amendment.... (Excerpt from a New York Times editorial of June 21, 1971, in The Pentagon Papers, 1971, p. 645)

Yet the Solicitor General argues and some members of the Court appear to agree that the general powers of the Government adopted in the original Constitution should be interpreted to limit and restrict the specific and emphatic guarantees of the Bill of Rights adopted later. I can imagine no greater perversion of history. Madison and the other framers of the First Amendment, able men that they were, wrote in language they earnestly believed could never be misunderstood: "Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of the press." Both the history and language of the First Amendment support the view that the press must be left free to publish news, whatever the source, without censorship, injunctions or prior restraints.

In the First Amendment the Founding Fathers gave the free press the protection it must have to fulfill its essential role in our democracy. The press was to serve the governed, not the governors. The Government's power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the Government. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the Government from deceiving the people and sending them off to distant lands to die of foreign fevers and foreign shot and shell. In my view, far from deserving condemnation for their courageous reporting, The New York Times, The Washington Post and other newspapers should be commended for serving the purpose that the Founding Fathers saw so clearly. In revealing the workings of government that led to the Vietnam war, the newspapers nobly did precisely that which the founders hoped and trusted they would do. (Mr. Justice Black, with whom Mr. Justice Douglas joins, concurring in the U.S. Supreme Court decision in favor of The New York Times, in The Pentagon Papers, 1971, p. 663)

Title: Copyright Statement
Version: August 5, 2003

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Elizabeth Dilling

Its Influence Today

Formerly Titled

Elizabeth Dilling


The Pharisees, the Talmud, and Modern Judaism
The Missing Link
The Babylonian Talmud, Sole Authority
Why Was It So Often Burned?
Babylonian Talmud — the Law
Was Christ Just to Pharisees?
Bible Versus Oral Law
The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud — Six Main Division
The Talmud Reviled
Emperor Hadrian and the Talmud
The Popes and the Talmud
The Talmud at the Stake
The Talmud and Martin Luther, the Father of Protestantism
Luther's Last Sermon

The Talmud and Bible Believers
Talmudic Anti-Christianity
Christianity Calls from Hell
Incest Preferable to Christianity
Death from Snakebite Preferable
Jesus and the High Priest's Privy
More Lies to Fool Us
Jesus Knew the Talmud
The Talmud and Mary, Mother of Jesus
Christ as "Balaam"
The 18 Benedictions
The Talmud — Five Deaths to Jesus

Judaism — Anti-Gentilism and Exploitation of Non-Jews
Articles Lost By Gentiles
Wine Touched By Gentiles
Gentiles Cast in a Pit
Non-Jews — "The People Who Are Like An Ass"
Always Make Money
Gentiles Are "Beasts"
Non-Jews — No Property Rights
Gentiles Must Not Rest, Even on Mondays
Goring One's Ox
In Law Suits, Cheat the Gentile
Gentiles Must Suffer to Make Jews the Messiah
Gentile Babies Defile
Swearing Falsely — the Kol Nidre
Robbery, Stealing, Murder — Approved Against Gentiles
Cheating a Gentile Out of Wages
Sodomy and Killing a Gentile
Kill the Gentile Who Studies the Torah
Accidental Killing of Jews

Talmudic Immorality, Asininity and Pornography: The Reprobate Mind
From a Roof
Incest with Lot
Harlots and Dogs
Permissible Adultery and Intercourse With the Dead
The Jewish Talmud and Legally Murdering Your Neighbor
Ten "Innocent" Murderers
"Mercy" Killings Approved
Cursing and Striking Parents
The Talmud Book of Gittin and Some Health Remedies
Use of the Bible for Asininity and Obscenity
Farming Inferior for Jews
Talmud Instructions for the Sabbath
Moving a Door Key
The Sabbath Louse-Hunt
Sabbath Intercourse
Talmud — Juvenile Birth Control and the "Two Hairs" Test for Puberty
More Talmudic "Wisdom"
Virginity on a Monetary Scale
Sodomy Approved
The Talmud Today

Judaism Not Monotheistic
Blasphemy Approved
Jews the Messiah
The Jewish Cabala
Cabalistic Hasidism
The Cabala and God
Theoretical Cabala
Practical Cabala
Transmigration of Souls
The Zohar, Principal Work of the Cabala
"Glorification of Man"
Procreation is "God"
Sholem; "Divine" Talmudists; "Holy Communion"
The Cabala and the World
Letters Create the World — Not God
Cabala Exalts the Jew
The Cabala — Sefer Raziel
The Cabala — Sefer Yetzirah

Judaism and Paganism
Babylon the Symbol
Talmudic Jewish Months Are Babylonian
Judaism — Tree Worship
Trees Today
Female Procreative Goddess
Ezekiel on Jerusalem Abominations and Tammuz
Today's "Wailings for Tammuz"
The "Sacred" Star of David
Judaism — Star Worship
Stars in Talmudic Idolatry
Star-Worship in the Jewish Calendar
Astrology and Moon-Worship
"Father of Lies"
Isaiah and New Moon Days
Blessing of the Sun
"Once in 28 Years Sun at Point of Creation"

Demonology of the Pharisees
Jewish Magic
Tashlik and Kapparah
Lilith — Favorite Demoness
To Fig
Spirits and Cemeteries
Jewish Necromancy
The Shulhan Aruch
Ritual Murder
Murdering Children
The Fire Bums For The Children
The Moloch Sacrifice Climaxes
Lacroix on Moloch
Judaism Permits Child Sacrifices to Moloch

Jews Not a Race
Christ Born of Judah
Jews Not "Semites"
Jews Never Pure Semites
Jews a Non-Racial Pharisee Sect
Why Do They "Look Jewish"?
Exhibits A-H

Jews God's "Chosen"?
"Brotherhood" With Anti-Christianity?

The Jews and Marxism — Socialism — Communism
Moses Hess — Jewish Marxist and Progenitor of Zionism
Hess and Christianity
Jewish Cover-up
Attempted Cover-up on the Jewish Bund
Exhibits I. J. K
Jewish Marxist-Zionist Minority Power
National Workmen's Committee of 1915
American Jewish Committee
Rabbi Wise
American Jewish Congress
Majority of Jews in Zionist-Marxist Organizations
The Jewish Labor Committee
B'nai B'rith Gloats Again
Jewish People's Committee
Poale Zion
Marxist Parties in Israel
The Jews and the Communization of Russia
The Jewish Bankers
The Kaiser
Jews in Russian Revolution of 1905
Rutenberg and the Russian Revolutions
Father Gapon
More Jewish Manipulations in the United States
Treaty With Russia Broken
Ford "Apologizes" to Jewry
The Russian Revolution — Suppressed State Department Documents
The Revolution Begins
Enter Kerensky
Jewish Financing Long Planned
Furstenberg at Stockholm
The Bolsheviks Take Over
Consequent "Anti-Semitism"
The Mysterious Ovdendyke Report
The Jews Gloat

Modern Jewish "Anti-Communism"
Foreign Changes
Prophecy and the Developing Anti-Christ World Government
The Anti-Christ
The Jerusalem Temple Rebuilding
Now Comes the United Nations
The Developing "Babylonian" World Government
Isaiah on the Anti-Christ
The Jewish "Messianic" Reign
More About the Jewish "Messianic" Era
Chad Gadyah
Babylon and Israel
Christ's Identification Marks
Table of Exhibits — 1 through 302, A through K


lizabeth Dilling Stokes was born, raised, and educated in Chicago. After attending the University of Chicago she married, and for many years devoted her life to her children, social activities on the North Shore of Chicago, and being a concert harpist. After hearing of the great "humanitarian experiment" in Soviet Russia, she traveled there in 1931, and was able to go behind the scenes. She was shocked at the forced labor, the squalid living quarters, and deplorable living conditions, and the atmosphere of fear created by the Soviet dictatorship.
She was most shocked by the virulent anti-Christianity of the atheist Communist regime.
Following her return to the United States she lectured and wrote about what she had seen, realizing from the opposition which immediately arose that a substantial Marxist movement was active in the United States. In 1934 her first book The Red Network was published, and exposé of the persons and organizations furthering Red causes in the United States. In 1936, her second book, The Roosevelt Red Record and Its Background, was published.
Almost immediately after these books were published, she was attacked as "anti-semitic," although she had actually offered her anti-Communist services to Jewish organizations, and knew nothing of organized Jewish involvement in the Marxist movement. After researching and studying, however, in 1940 she published her third book The Octopus, which dealt with these subjects.
After World War II commenced, Mrs. Dilling became convinced that, despite President Roosevelt's protestations that not one American boy would ever again fight on foreign soil, there was a movement afoot to involve the United States, with the result that a substantial part of the world would be communized later. In 1941, she led a Mother's March on Washington to oppose the "Lend Lease" bill, proclaimed to help keep us out of war by its sponsors, but proving the last step for our involvement. The bill passed by only one vote. A few months later, the United States went to war.
In 1944, Mrs. Dilling's views involved her in the now infamous mass "sedition" trial. The case was ultimately dismissed by a Federal Court as "a travesty on justice."
She was later remarried to Jeremiah Stokes, a Christian anti-Communist writer, and she continued to write and lecture in behalf of Christianity and Constitutional Americanism, first publishing this book in 1964.
Mrs. Dilling Stokes died in 1966 at the age of 72.

Copyright notice.

Vladimir Moss

Link in title

Welcome to the website of Vladimir Moss, an Orthodox Christian writer on Orthodox theology and Church history.

Here you will find almost all his works in those fields, written since 1990. Also here are the works of his wife, Olga Moss. Readers can download what they want, and quote any passages from any book or article provided the source is mentioned.

The raison d'être of this website is the very pressing need for educational materials in the English language that present the Orthodox Christian Faith in its most traditional, patristic form. Almost all the issues that trouble and concern Orthodox Christians today are discussed and analyzed in the books and articles on this website. Although particular emphasis has been placed on the issues facing Orthodox in the contemporary western world, much space has been devoted to the struggles of the Orthodox Churches in the traditionally Orthodox countries of Eastern Europe and the Middle East, especially the Catacomb (True Orthodox) Church of Russia.

If you have any questions or wish to make any comments (in English, French or Russian), you are encouraged to get in touch with the author at

Through the prayers of our Holy Fathers, Lord Jesus Christ our God, have mercy on us! Amen.

Friday, November 27, 2009

"The Plot Against the Church." Maurice Pinay

"The Plot Against the Church." Maurice Pinay

"The Plot Against the Church." Maurice Pinay
This describes in detail how the Jews' Communism and Freemasonry took over the Catholic Church and left an Apostate diabolic shell in its place - Click Image

The War of Antichrist against the Church and Christian Civilization

(In: "The War of Antichrist against the Church and Christian Civilization," note that Dillon’s use of the word ‘Islam’ and all references thereto are in the sense only of a kind and sort of false profession of Islam which is actually referred to by true Muslim exegetes as “hawks,” or heretical within Islam. True Muslims and true Christians worship the same God. Freemasonry is the Antichrist (ad-Dajjal) false religion that opposes the true God and true Muslim and true Christian faith in the true God.)

See Link in title for complete work, it is also entitled:

Grand Orient Freemasonry Unmasked - As the Secret Power Behind Communism

The Grand Orient lodges are under the control of the Illuminati order, which is the Satanic cult within the houses of the Dragon which are the Illuminati of Europe. With the Illuminati of Asia they are the ancient noble houses of all of Eurasia. They are totally Satanic and own the Central Bankers who own and operate the finances of the world.





A Review of




Missionary Apostolic, Sydney

Instruct the peoples as to the artifices used by societies of this kind in seducing men and enticing them into their ranks, and as to the depravity of their opinions and the wickedness of their acts. ENCYCLICAL HUMANUMGENUS OF LEO XIII.

First published by M. H. Gill & Son, Dublin, 1885.
Nihil obstat
: W. Fortune, D.D., Censor Theologus Deputatus.
: Gulielmus J. Canon Walsh, Vic. Cap., Dublin.

Reprinted by Britons Publishing Company, 1950, with a Foreword by Fr. Denis Fahey. C.S.S.Sp.
Nihil obstat: Ernestus Messenger, Ph.D., Censor Deputatus.
Imprimatur: E. Morrough Bernard, Vic. Gen., Westminster.

“Lying is their rule, Satan is their God, and shameful deeds their sacrifice.” Pius VIII, Traditae Humilitati Nostrae, 1829.

Gregory XVI compares the secret societies to a sink in which “are congregated and intermingled all the sacrileges, infamy and blasphemy which are contained in the most abominable heresies.” Gregory XVI, Mirari Vos, 1832.

“Those baneful secret sects which have come forth from the darkness for the ruin and devastation of the Church and State”, Pius IX, Quo Pluribus, 1846, to whom he later applied the words of Our Lord: “You are from your father the devil, and it is the works of your father that you wish to do.” Pius IX, Singulari Quadam, 1864.

“You see then before you the two systems... On the one side is the Church of ‘men of goodwill’, one, holy, visible and universal; on the other, the ecclesia malignantium, as the Scriptures call it, the Church of men of evil will; one in enmity against the Church of God, though manifold as the multiplicity of evil; unholy in thought, word, deed, intention and will; invisible because secret, stealthy, subterraneous, working out of sight, and in darkness undermining the private purities of home, the public order of States, the thrones of princes.” Cardinal Manning: Rome and the Revolution, 1867.

“Filled with the spirit of Satan, who knows how to transform himself into an angel of light, Freemasonry puts forward as its pretended aim the good of humanity. Paying a lip service to the authority of law, and even to the obligations of religion, it aims (as its own statutes declare) at the destruction of civil authority and of the Christian priesthood, both of which it regards as the foes of human liberty.” Leo XIII, Parvenu à la vingt-cinquième année, 1902.

Mother Teresa's Letter to the US Supreme Court on Roe v. Wad

Link in title

Mother Teresa's Letter to the US Supreme Court on Roe v. Wade

This amicus brief was filed before the U.S. Supreme Court in the cases of Loce v. New Jersey and Krail et al. v. New Jersey in February 1994, by Mother Teresa.

I hope you will count it no presumption that I seek your leave to address you on behalf of the unborn child. Like that child I can be considered an outsider. I am not an American citizen.

My parents were Albanian. I was born before the First World War in a part of what was not yet, and is no longer, Yugoslavia.
In many senses I know what it is like to be without a country.
I also know what is like to feel an adopted citizen of other lands. When I was still a young girl I traveled to India.
I found my work among the poor and the sick of that nation, and I have lived there ever since.

Since 1950 I have worked with my many sisters from around the world as one of the Missionaries of Charity. Our congregation now has over four hundred foundations in more that one hundred countries, including the United States of America.
We have almost five thousand sisters.

We care for those who are often treated as outsiders in their own communities by their own neighbors—the starving, the crippled, the impoverished, and the diseased, from the old woman with a brain tumor in Calcutta to the young man with AIDS in New York City.
A special focus of our care are mothers and their children.

This includes mothers who feel pressured to sacrifice their unborn children by want, neglect, despair, and philosophies and government policies that promote the dehumanization of inconvenient human life. And it includes the children themselves, innocent and utterly defenseless, who are at the mercy of those who would deny their humanity.

So, in a sense, my sisters and those we serve are all outsiders together. At the same time, we are supremely conscious of the common bonds of humanity that unite us and transcend national boundaries.

In another sense, no one in the world who prizes liberty and human rights can feel anything but a strong kinship with America. Yours is the one great nation in all of history that was founded on the precept of equal rights and respect for all humankind, for the poorest and weakest of us as well as the richest and strongest.

As your Declaration of Independence put it, in words that have never lost their power to stir the heart: “We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…” A nation founded on these principles holds a sacred trust: to stand as an example to the rest of the world, to climb ever higher in its practical realization of the ideals of human dignity, brotherhood, and mutual respect. Your constant efforts in fulfillment of that mission, far more that your size or your wealth or your military might, have made America an inspiration to all mankind.

It must be recognized that your model was never one of realized perfection, but of ceaseless aspiration. From the outset, for example, America denied the African slave his freedom and human dignity. But in time you righted that wrong, albeit at an incalculable cost in human suffering and loss of life.

Your impetus has almost always been toward a fuller, more all embracing conception and assurance of the rights that your founding fathers recognized as inherent and God-given.
Yours has ever been an inclusive, not an exclusive, society. And your steps, though they may have paused or faltered now and then, have been pointed in the right direction and have trod the right path. The task has not always been an easy one, and each new generation has faced its own challenges and temptations. But in a uniquely courageous and inspiring way, America has
kept faith.

Yet there has been one infinitely tragic and destructive departure from those American ideals in recent memory. It was this Court's own decision in Roe v. Wade (1973) to exclude the unborn child from the human family. You ruled that a mother, in consultation with her doctor, has broad discretion, guaranteed against infringement by the United States Constitution, to choose to destroy her unborn child.

Your opinion stated that you did not need to “resolve the difficult question of when life begins.” That question is inescapable. If the right to life in an inherent and inalienable right, it must surely exist wherever life exists. No one can deny that the unborn child is a distinct being, that it is human, and that it is alive. It is unjust, therefore, to deprive the unborn child of its fundamental right to life on the basis of its age, size, or condition of dependency.

It was a sad infidelity to America's highest ideals when this Court said that it did not matter, or could not be determined, when the inalienable right to life began for a child in its mother's womb.

America needs no words from me to see how your decision in Roe v. Wade has deformed a great nation. The so-called right to abortion has pitted mothers against their children and women against men. It has sown violence and discord at the heart of the most intimate human relationships.

It has aggravated the derogation of the father's role in an increasingly fatherless society.
It has portrayed the greatest of gifts—a child—as a competitor, an intrusion, and an inconvenience. It has nominally accorded mothers unfettered domination over the independent lives of their physically dependent sons and daughters.

And, in granting this unconscionable power, it has exposed many women to unjust and selfish demands from their husbands or other sexual partners.

Human rights are not a privilege conferred by government. They are every human being's entitlement by virtue of his humanity. The right to life does not depend, and must not be declared to be contingent, on the pleasure of anyone else, not even a parent or a sovereign.

The Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany recently ruled that “the unborn child is entitled to its rights to life independently of acceptance by its mother; this is an elementary and inalienable right that emanates from the dignity of the human being.” Americans may feel justly proud that Germany in 1993 was able to recognize the sanctity of human life. You must weep that your own government, at present, seems blind to this truth.

I have no new teaching for America. I seek only to recall you to faithfulness to what you once taught the world. Your nation was founded on the proposition—very old as a moral precept, but startling and innovative as a political insight—that human life is a gift of immeasurable worth, and that it deserves, always and everywhere, to be treated with the utmost dignity and respect.

I urge the Court to take the opportunity presented by the petitions in these cases to consider the fundamental question of when human life begins and to declare without equivocation the inalienable rights which it possesses.

In Memory of Mother Teresa - Quotes About Abortion

Link in title

"America needs no words from me to see how your decision in Roe v. Wade has deformed a great nation. The so-called right to abortion has pitted mothers against their children and women against men. It has sown violence and discord at the heart of the most intimate human relationships. It has aggravated the derogation of the father's role in an increasingly fatherless society. It has portrayed the greatest of gifts -- a child -- as a competitor, an intrusion, and an inconvenience. It has nominally accorded mothers unfettered dominion over the independent lives of their physically dependent sons and daughters"
And, in granting this unconscionable power, it has exposed many women to unjust and selfish demands from their husbands or other sexual partners. Human rights are not a privilege conferred by government. They are every human being's entitlement by virtue of his humanity. The right to life does not depend, and must not be declared to be contingent, on the pleasure of anyone else, not even a parent or a sovereign." (Mother Theresa -- "Notable and Quotable," Wall Street Journal, 2/25/94, p. A14)
"But I feel that the greatest destroyer of peace today is abortion, because it is a war against the child - a direct killing of the innocent child - murder by the mother herself. And if we accept that a mother can kill even her own child, how can we tell other people not to kill one another? How do we persuade a woman not to have an abortion? As always, we must persuade her with love, and we remind ourselves that love means to be willing to give until it hurts. Jesus gave even his life to love us. So the mother who is thinking of abortion, should be helped to love - that is, to give until it hurts her plans, or her free time, to respect the life of her child. The father of that child, whoever he is, must also give until it hurts. By abortion, the mother does not learn to love, but kills even her own child to solve her problems. And by abortion, the father is told that he does not have to take any responsibility at all for the child he has brought into the world. That father is likely to put other women into the same trouble. So abortion just leads to more abortion. Any country that accepts abortion is not teaching the people to love, but to use any violence to get what they want. That is why the greatest destroyer of love and peace is abortion. "
"Please don't kill the child. I want the child. Please give me the child. I am willing to accept any child who would be aborted, and to give that child to a married couple who will love the child, and be loved by the child. From our children's home in Calcutta alone, we have saved over 3,000 children from abortions. These children have brought such love and joy to their adopting parents, and have grown up so full of love and joy!"
February 1997 - National Prayer Breakfast in Washington attended by the President and the First Lady. "What is taking place in America," she said, "is a war against the child. And if we accept that the mother can kill her own child, how can we tell other people not to kill one another."
"Any country that accepts abortion, is not teaching its people to love, but to use any violence to get what it wants."
"It is a poverty to decide that a child must die so that you may live as you wish."


Link in above title to Museum of Communism

Bryan Caplan, Curator
Like to submit an exhibit?

Main Entry

Audio Welcome (96K)

"Never again." The tyranny and atrocities of Nazi Germany have been justly condemned by world opinion for over 50 years. But it is only recently that Communist despotism has begun to receive remotely similar attention.

It would be a great tragedy if Communism disappeared from the earth without leaving behind an indelible memory of its horrors. Communism was not essentially about espionage, or power politics, or irreligion. Rather it was a grand theoretical synthesis of totalitarianism... a theory which millions of people experienced as the practice of murder and slavery.

The roots of Communism lie squarely in the works of the philosopher Karl Marx. But at the same time, as we shall see, the tradition of Czarist absolutism also became an important source of Communist inspiration. The first exhibit to open explores the Marxist and Czarist origins of the Communist movement.

Marxist Origins of Communism
Czarist Origins of Communism
History of Communism
Main Entry
History of Communism
Famous Communists
Special Exhibits
Museum of Communism FAQ

Marxists Internet Archive —— Library ——

Marxists Internet Archive
—— Library ——

Karl Marx

International Working-men's Association
(First International)

The founders of Marxism, Marx and Engels, participated in the “International Workingmen's Association” from 1864 to 1872, where they found their first base of support and a connection with the workers' movement. Based in London, the International found supporteres across Europe and in the U.S.A.

Fredrick Engels Karl Marx & Fredrick Engels (1818-1883)/(1820-1895) 1,000+ *
Founders of Marxist practice and philosophy. Established the ground work of Marxism through an examination of the rise of capitalism, the history of society, and critique of many prevailent philosophies. Established the First International Workers' organisation.
[Marx Biography] [Engels Biography]
Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900) 10+
German Revolutionary, comrade of Marx in the Communist League in the 1840s.

Friedrich Adolphe Sorge (1826-1906) < 5
After fighting in the 1848 Revolution in Germany, he fled to America; later Secretary of the First International; Marx's closest supporter in the US.

Joseph Dietzgen (1828-1888) < 5
Created dialectical materialism independently of Marx & Engels, but on seeing their writings became their most ardent supporter. His main contributions were using dialectics to elaborate epistemology.

August Bebel (1840-1913) 10+ *
Co-founder of the German Social Democracy with Wilhelm Liebknecht in 1869. Part of the Reichstag from 1867. Outstandingly argued for the emancipation of women's rights before capitalism could be overthrown.

The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions.
Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution.
The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win.

Paul Lafargue (1841-1911) 30+ *
A member of the Paris Commune. Staunch advocate of Women's rights, wrote also on the history of religion, morals, literature, language, and comedy. Married to Marx's second daughter, Laura.

Jenny Marx Longuet (1844-1883) < 5
Fought for Irish independence from England. Detailed the attrocities against Irish political prisoners in England. Braved a narrow escape from France after the massacres of the Paris Commune. Marx's eldest daugthter.

Jules Guesde (1845-1922) < 5
French socialist. Leader of the Marxist wing of the French workers' movement.


The Socialist International
(Second International)

In the 1880s, militant workers' movements grew up in all the capitalist countries. Marxists built powerful social-democratic parties which gave political leadership to these movements and transformed Marxism into a worldwide, mass movement.

Karl Kautsky (1854-1938) 60+ *
Helped create the German Social-Democracy, one of the best-known theoreticians of the Second International, and a leading proponent of Marx & Engels after their death. During and after World War I he became a pacifist.

British Social Democracy

William Morris (1834-1896) 300+
Helped create the Socialist League (with E. Marx). An artist who became a revolutionary communist through his search to address the lack of creative and artistic freedom allowed in the capitalist work process. Wrote fiction on far in the future Communist societies.

Henry Hyndman (1842-1921) 5+
Founder of Britain’s first socialist party, the Social Democratic Federation, but did not follow the SDF into the Independent Labour Party and supported the War.

Edward Carpenter (1844-1929) < 5
English socialist poet, anthologist, early gay activist and socialist philosopher.

Annie Besant (1847-1933) < 5
British socialist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self rule.

E. Belfort Bax (1854-1925) 300+
Among the first sources for many Marxist and materialist ideas in English. Founding member of Social Democratic Federation. Popularised Marxist approach to French Revolution in English.

Eleanor Marx (1855-1898) 15+
Helped formed the Socialist League (with W. Morris), and wrote extensively in its paper. Wrote extensively on women's issues. Organizing, writer, record-keeper, and speaker for militant trade unions such as the Gasworkers, and the Dockers Union.

Harry Quelch (1858-1913) 5+
Founding member of British Social Democracy.

Dora Montefiore (1851-1933) 100+
British feminist and founding member of the British Communist Party.

Tom Mann (1856-1941) < 5
British trade union organiser and founding member of the British Communist Party, founder of IWW and Marxist movement in Australia.

Max Beer (1864-1943) 5+
German-born Jewish socialist journalist and historian, British Social-Democrat; worked with Riazanov at the Institut für Sozialforschung.

Theo. Rothstein (1864-1943) 20+
Russian emigré British Social Democrat; returned to Russian after the Revolution and worked as a diplomat.

Early American Marxism.

Daniel DeLeon (1852-1914) 1,000+ *
Helped create the IWW. Developed one of the most detailed outlines of how Socialist society should function. Believed that democratic control of all industries and services must be held by workers organised into industrial unions.

Eugene Debs (1855-1926) 40+
Helped build the American Railway Union, and later the American Socialist Party. Arrested for his political criticism of WW1, won almost a million votes for U.S. President while in prison.

James Connolly (1868-1916) 300+ *
Helped create the Irish Socialist Republican Party in 1896; served as Secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union. Executed for his leading role in the Easter Rising.

E.H. Lane (1868-1954) <5
Australian Communist journalist, brother of Utopian William Lane.

Antonio Labriola (1843-1904) < 5
Among the first Italian Marxists, he was a writer and philosopher. Criticized the theories of Hegel, Nietzsche, Croce, and neo-Kantiansim.

August Palm (1849-1922) < 5
Founder of Swedish Social-Democracy.


Vera Zasulich (1851-1919) < 5
A founder with Plekhanov of the Emancipation of Labour Group, and a translator of Marx's works into Russian; later joined the Mensheviks.

Georgi Plekhanov (1856-1918) 20+ *
Helped create the Russian Social-Democratic party, becomming a Menshevik after the split in the party, but he tried to keep the party united. Believed that capitalism need to grow up before socialism was possible; thus he opposed the Soviet government.

Julius Martov (1873-1923) < 5
Originally close collaborator of Lenin, split with him in 1903 and became leading Left Menshevik and critic of Bolshevism.


Gabriel Deville (1854-1940) < 5
One of the founders of the Second International in France.

Enrico Ferri (1856-1929) < 5
Italian Marxist of the Second International, criminologist.

Sen Katayama (1859-1933) 5+
Born Yabuki Sugataro, jailed for striking in 1912, left Japan for the US, where he became a Communist, and as an officer for Comintern he became in 1922, co-founder of the Japan Communist Party, left Japan and remained in the Soviet Union until his death.

The Spartacist League

Franz Mehring (1846-1919) < 5
Writer, historian, member of German Social Democrats and the Spartacist League.

Clara Zetkin (1857-1933) 10+
Leader of the international women's movement. National Executive member of the German Social Democratic party. Long time comrade of Rosa Luxemburg, helped create the Spartacists and German Communist Party. Supported the Soviet government.

Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) 60+ *
Championed the idea of the mass strike. Tireless opponent of WWI, she renounced the German Social Democracy, helped to create the Spartacus League, and later the German Communist Party. Critical of the Soviet government. Executed by the German government.

Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919) < 5
"Karl Liebknecht called upon the workers and soldiers of Germany to turn their guns against their own government. Karl Liebknecht did that openly from the rostrum of parliament (the Reichstag) [of which he was a deputy – he was the only member of government to do so]." Executed by the German government.

August Thalheimer (1884-1948) 10+
German socialist, founder member and theorist of the German Communist Party.

See also: Wilhelm Liebknecht, August Bebel, Wilhelm Pieck

Rudolph Hilferding (1877-1941) < 5
German socialist and political economist.

Otto Bauer (1881-1938) < 5
Major theorist of “Austro-Marxism” in the “2½ International.”

Ber Borochov (1881-1917) < 5
Marxist-Zionist and one of the founders of the Labour Zionist movement.

See also: Paul Lafargue, Jules Guesde, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Leon Kamenev, Sylvia Pankhurst, Vida Goldstein.


Eduard BernsteinIn all advanced countries we see the privileges of the capitalist bourgeoisie yielding step by step to democratic organisations.

Eduard Bernstein
(1850-1932) 10+ *
A close associate of Engels and an early Marxist, Bernstein came to believe that capitalism could be made more and more democratic so that a socialist revolution would be unnecessary and irrelevant.

Jean Jaurès (1859-1914) 10+
Popular French socialist. Founder of l'Humanité.

Hjalmar Branting (1860-1925)
A founder of Swedish social democracy.

Alexander Kerensky (1882-1970)
Member of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party; was leader of the Provisional Government when overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917.

Bruno Rizzi (1901-1977)
Italian socialist, critic of bureaucracy.

Fabian Society

Oscar Wilde Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
Irish poet and playwrite who was also a socialist.

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
Irish writer and playwrite, comrade of Eleanor Marx, Edward Aveling, and William Morris, later joined the Fabian society, a circle of intellectuals who advocated reform to avoid revolution.

H.G. Wells (1866-1946)
Radical science fiction author who used his novels to warn of the dangers of capitalism.


Michael Davitt (1846-1906)
Radical Irish social reformer, founder and leader of the Irish Land League, which fought for radical land reform.

Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)
Radical American writer who exposed the conditions of the poor in the industrial cities of the U.S..


The Bolsheviks

Social-democracy was unable to prevent the First World War, and only one section – the Bolshevik Party in Russia, was able to overthrow their government, pull out of the war and institute a socialist policy. The Bolsheviks called on the workers of all countries to come to their aid.

Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) 1,000+ *
Helped create the Bolshevik party. Led the Soviets to power in the Russian Revolution. Elected to the head of the Soviet government until 1922, when he retired due to ill health. Created the Communist International. Created the theory of Imperialism, emphasised the importance of the political party as vanguard in the revolution.

Maxim Gorky (1868-1936) 5+
World-renowned writer of fiction, Gorky first focused on the plight of societal outcasts in Russia, then turned his attention to the struggles of the working class.

Nadezhada Krupskaya (1869-1939) < 5
Bolshevik Revolutionary. Writer, educator and Secretary of the Party. Wife and advisor to V.I. Lenin. Secretary to the Board of Iskra beginning in 1901. Brought recognition of International Women's day to Russia.

David Riazanov (1870-1938) < 5
Historian and Archivist of Marxism, helped create the Marx-Engels Institute. Political prisoner of Stalinism, died in prison.

Alexandra Kollontai (1872-1952) 30+ *
Bolshevik Revolutionary. Led the Workers' Opposition, which opposed party control of trade unions and believed in industrial unionism. First woman ambassador in history. Proponent of free love, she wrote extensively on women's and other social issues.

Georgi Chicherin (1872-1936) 20+
One-time Diplomat and Social-Revolutionary, appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs for the Bolsheviks in 1918.

Christian Rakovsky (1873-1941) 5+
President of Soviet Ukraine, worked to make the Soviet Ukrainian identity independent of Russia. Helped create the Left Opposition, seen as its ideological leader. Explained Socialist economics. Political prisoner of Stalinism, died in prison.

Alexander Bogdanov (1873-1928) < 5
Russian Doctor, an old Bolshevik expelled in 1909 as an ultra-left. Also a writer, after the Revolution dedicated himself to science.

Anatoly Lunacharsky (1875-1933) 5+
Bolshevik Revolutionary, outstanding orator. Commissar for Education in the Soviet government. Historian and archivist of Russia, he wrote extensive, personal biographical portraits on the leaders of the revolution.

Cecilia Bobrovskaya (1876-1960) < 5
Bolshevik who wrote a celebrated history of her experiences.

Mikhail Tomsky (1880-1936) < 5
Old Bolshevik, trade unionist.

F.F. Raskolnikov (1892-1939) < 5
Bolshevik sailor who chronicled the October Revolution.
Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) 100+ *
First Menshevik, later Bolshevik Revolutionary. As commissar of war led the Red Army to defeat the Entente in their invasion of Soviet Russia. Helped create the Left Opposition to overthrow Stalin and stop the monstorous attrocities he'd soon commit. Created the theory of the Permanent Revolution, and the Fourth International. Assasinated by the Soviet government.

TrotskyThe dictatorship of the proletariat which has risen to power as the leader of the democratic revolution is inevitably and, very quickly confronted with tasks, the fulfillment of which is bound up with deep inroads into the rights of bourgeois property.

Natalia Sedova Trotsky (1882-1962) < 5
Russian Revolutionary. Worked with Lenin and Trotsky on pre-revolutionary Bolshevik newspaper Iskra. Publicly split with Fourth International in 1951. Wife of Leon Trotsky.

Leon Kamenev (1883-1936) < 5
Old Bolshevik and founding member of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. First chariman of Central Committee and a founding member of the politburo. First supported Stalin, then joined Trotsky to try to remove him. Imprisoned and placed on trial for alleged assassination plot against Stalin. Executed by the Soviet government.

Gregory Zinoviev (1883-1936) < 5
Bolshevik. With Kamenev, opposed the plans for a revolution. Allied with Stalin and Kamenev against Trotskyism. Later, allied with Trotsky against Stalin. Wrote about the history of the party. Executed during the Moscow Trials.

Alexander Shliapnikov (1885-1937) < 5
Old Bolsheik, a member of the Central Committee during the October Revolution and member of the “Workers Opposition” after the Revolution. Executed by the Soviet government.

Karl Radek (1885-1939) < 5
Old Bolshevik, active in the Communist International in Europe. Died in prison.

Grigory Sokolnikov (1880-1936) < 5
Old Bolshevik, Brest-Litovsk negotiator, Ambassador to England, and People's Commissar for Finance.

Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938) 10+
Bolshevik Revolutionary. Editor of Pravda (1928-29). Joined Stalin against Trotsky, then led the Right Opposition against Stalin. A theoretical leader of the party, focused heavily on economics, and wrote on market socialism. Executed after the Moscow Trials.

Evgenii Preobrazhensky (1898-1937) <5
Young Bolshevik, Member of the Left Opposition. Executed after the Moscow Trials.

See Also: Josef Stalin, Alexander Lozovsky, Vyacheslav Molotov.

Communist International

The Comintern

In 1919, the Bolsheviks held a conference attended by revolutionaries fom every corner of the world, and established the Communist International (Comintern); soon there were Communist Parties in every country, drawing the most militant workers to the Bolsheviks.

Charles Rappoport (1865-1941) < 5
Russian revolutionary, joined French CP as an exile.

Wilhelm Pieck (1876-1960) <5
Carpenter, Spartacist and founder of the German CP; later a supporter of Stalin, in 1949 appointed President of the GDR.

Alexander Lozovsky (1878-1952) 5+
Old Bolshevik, Ukrainian Jewish worker, leader of the Red International of Trade Unions.

John MacLean (1879-1923) 40+
Scottish schoolteacher and Marxist educator. His evening-classes produced many of the activists who became instrumental in the Clyde revolts during and after WWI. Soviet Consul to Scotland.

Henri Wallon (1879-1962) < 5
French Psychologist who elaborated a systematic Marxist psychology.

Pierre Monatte (1881-1960) < 5
French communist. Founding member of PCF, expelled in 1924, revolutionary syndicalist.

Max Eastman (1883-1969) < 5
American socialist who became a prominent support of Trotsky but later an anti-communist.

Louise Bryant (1885-1936) < 5
American Revolutionary, supporter of the Soviet government. Historian of the revolution. Tireless advocate to stop U.S. invasion of Soviet Russia. Wife of John Reed.

Bela Kun (1886-1937) 10+
Hungarian Communist, activist in the Comintern.

Paul Levi (1886-1930) lt;5
German Communist, activist in the Comintern.

Guido Baracchi (1887-1975) <5
A founder of the Australian CP, member of ECCI, joined Trotskyists 1939.

M N Roy (1887-1954) 20+ *
Indian Communist and key leader of the Comintern, later a radical humanist.

Wm. F. Dunne (1887-1953) 5+
Miner, founding member of the CPUSA, expelled after returning from War service.

Max Bedacht (1883-1972) 5+
German born American socialist, impossiblist, founding member of the CPUSA.

Evelyn Roy (1892-1970) 5+
American Communist who helped her husband, M.N. Roy, found Communist Parties in Mexico and India.
John Reed (1887-1920) 20+
American Revolutionary, supporter of the Soviet government. Historian of the revolution. Tireless advocate to stop U.S. invasion of Soviet Russia. Husband of Louise Bryant.

Louis Fraina (Corey) (1892-1953) < 5
American socialist, supporter of Russian Revolution, later expelled from the Comintern and wrote on economics.

August Thalheimer (1890-1960) 5+
Prominent German theorist. Expelled from the Communist Party for "right-wing deviation" in 1928 as main theorist for the Brandlerites. Particularly occupied with analyzing the actual class struggle of his time on independent Marxist grounds.

Victor Serge (1890-1947) 10+
Originally an anarchist, later joined the Russian Communist Party. As a Comintern representative in Germany he helped prepare the aborted insurrection in 1923. Also joined the Left Opposition in 1923, expelled from the party in 1928 and briefly imprisoned. Exiled in 1933.

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) 50+ *
Helped create the Italian Communist Party. Arrested in 1926 for his revolutionary activities and sentenced by a fascist court to 20 years imprisonment. Theorized key concepts such as hegemony, base and superstructure, organic intellectuals, and war of position.

Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) 5+
Yugoslav communist, participated in the October Revolution and built a partisan army during World War Two which won national liberation for Yugoslavia and united the country. Broke with Stalin over the Post-War settlement and took an independent line.

Andreu Nin (1892-1937) <5
Founder of Communist Party and in 1935 of the POUM in Spain.

José Carlos Mariátegui (1894-1930) 5+
Peruvian Professor. Self-educated. Historian of European Marxism and movements in South America.

Victor Serge1919: Horses dying from hunger in the roadway, pedestrians wan and inflated, scurvy, typhus, cold, hunger – treason – expectation. Soviets in Bavaria, Soviets in Hungary, the Internationale sung by two-thirds of Europe.
[Victor Serge]

Henk Sneevliet (1883-1942) < 5
Dutch communist, early organiser for the Comintern, foundihng member of Communist Party in Indonesia.

Tan Malaka (1897-1949) 15+
Indonesian Communist, briefly became the Chairman of Indonesian Communist Party in 1921 before being exiled by the Dutch for the next 21 years. A prominent figure in the Indonesian national liberation movement and workers movement.

See Also: James Cannon, Karl Korsch, Georg Lukács, Sylvia Pankhurst.

Josef Stalin * (1879-1953) 800+
General Secretary of Soviet Communist Party from 1917 till his death in 1953. Responsible for the murder of the entire Bolshevik leadership and the consolidation of bureaucratic rule in the USSR.

Otto Ville Kuusinen (1881-1964) < 5
Finnish Communist and Comintern leader under Stalin.

Georgi Dimitrov (1882-1949) 20+
Long-standing leader of Bulgarian C.P.

Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986)
Soviet leader who succeeded Stalin.

Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) 5+
Leader of Soviet Union who denounced Stalin in 1956 and tried to reform Soviet society.

Dmitry Manuilsky (1883–1959) < 5
Functionary in the Comintern and foreign service.

Lavrenti Beria (1899-1953) < 5
Close associate of Stalin, leader of Secret police 1938 till Stalin’s death.

Georgy Malenkov (1902-1988) < 5
Soviet politician, succeeded Stalin as Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR from 1953–1955.

Nikolai Bulganin (1895-1975) < 5
Soviet politician and minister in the Red Army. Succeeded Malenkov as Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR from 1955–1958.

Mikhail Suslov (1902-1982) < 5
Soviet politician and member of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party.


Maurice Thorez (1900-1964) 5+
Post World War Two leader of the French Communist Party.

Louis Aragon (1897-1982) < 5
French Communist Poet.

Georges Politzer (1903-1942) < 5
French Marxist philosopher.

Moissaye J. Olgin (1878-1939) 5+
A leader of the Jewish Bund, and later leading member of the CPUSA.

William Z. Foster (1881-1961) 10+
Trade unionist and leader of the Communist Party of the USA.

Enver Hoxha (1908-1985) 5+
Leader of Albanian CP, followed separate foreign policy, anti-Khrushchev, anti-Mao and pro-Stalin.


The final victory of socialism in the first country to emancipate itself is impossible without the combined efforts of the proletarians of several countries, and the unfolding of the world revolution will be the more rapid and thorough, the more effective the assistance rendered by the first socialist country to the workers and laboring masses of all other countries.

British Communist Party
The CPGB History Archive includes a number of writers who were members of the Communist Party of Great Britain, including R. Page Arnot, Thomas Bell, Emile Burns, J. R. Campbell, Helen Crawfurd, Clemens Dutt, Ralph Fox, Will Gallacher, John Gollan, Wal Hannington, Arthur Horner, Albert Inkpin, T. A. Jackson, James Klugmann, J. T. Walton Newbold, Arthur MacManus, William Paul, Marjorie Pollitt, Andrew Rothstein, Theodor Rothstein, William Rust, Shapurji Saklatvala, Beth Turner, Ellen Wilkinson, and others as well as fellow-travellers such as Hewlett Johnson.

J. T. Murphy (1888-1965) 120+
Founding member of the CPGB and noted figure in Comintern and RILU matters who moved the resolution expelling Trotsky from the Comintern in 1927.

Harry Pollitt (1890-1960)
General Secretary of CPGB from 1929 till 1956, apart from 1940 when he opposed Stalin-Hitler Pact.

R. Palme Dutt (1896-1974)
Member of the Independent Labour Party before joining the Communist Party in 1920, Dutt was a member of the Executive Committee of the CPGB from 1923 until 1965.

J. D. Bernal (1901-1971) 15+
Popularised Marxism. Wrote a 4 volume history of science from a Marxist perspective.

Christopher Caudwell (1907-1937) 5+
English philosopher and writer, won to Marxism in the 1930s and died fighting for the Republican cause in Spain in 1937. Wrote classic Marxist analyses of literature and art.

Christopher Hill (1912-2003) < 5
English Marxist historian.

Wilfred Burchett (1891-1973)
Australian journalist documented US imperialist crimes, expecially in S.E.Asia; Australian government removed his Australian citizenship.

Pietro Secchia (1901-1977)
Popular Italian communist, on the left of the PCI and a historian.

Tim Buck (1891-1973)
A leader of the Canadian Communist Party, trade unionist, and agitator, especially among the unemployed during the Depression; loyal supporter of the Soviet line.

Fred Rose (1907-1983)
Canadian trade unionist, Communist and Member of Parliament.


Bill Bland (1916-2001)
New Zealand-born communist, supporter of Enver Hoxha in Britain.


Soviet Philosophers and Scientists

Writers – scientists, philosophers, teachers – in the Soviet Union were obliged to develop their ideas in terms of the official orthodox Marxist dogma. Most of these writers cannot properly be described as Marxists, but nevertheless their work has contributed in some way or another to our understanding of Marxism.

I. V. Michurin (1855-1935) Soviet scientist who carried out groundbreaking research in genetics.

N. A. Semashko (1874-1949)
Architect of Soviet Health System.

Vitaly Vygodsky (1928-1998)
Soviet political economist.

Alexander Spirkin
Anton Makarenko (1888-1939)
Soviet educationalist who promoted development of virtues of discipline and collectivism.

T. D. Lysenko (1898-1976)
Promoted theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics as the official Communist Party line in biology.
Lev Vygotsky

Soviet Marxism

Despite the suppression of Trotskyism and the impossibility of open political discussion in Stalin's Soviet Union, a few Russians continued the development of Marxism in Psychology, Medicine, Law and the Sciences. This “non-political Marxism” only dared to show its political colours after Stalin's death.
Evgeny Pashukanis (1891-1937) 10+
Foremost exponent of the Marxist approach to Law.

Valentin Voloshinov (1895-1936) 5+
Soviet linguist, associate of Mickhail Bakhtin.

Evald Ilyenkov (1924-1979) 5+ *
Soviet philosopher. Charted the materialist development of Hegel's dialectics. Wrote extensively on dialectics, the Metaphysics of Positivism, and The Dialectics of the Abstract and Concrete in Marx's Capital.

V A Lektorsky (192?- ) < 5
Soviet psychologist who wrote on foundations of subjectivity.

A I Meshcheryakov (1923-1974) < 5
Soviet psychologist who developed education of deaf-blind children.

Feliks Mikhailov (1930-2006) < 5
Soviet philosopher who challenged simplistic ideas of subjectivity.
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) 10+ *
Soviet Psychologist who founded the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) school of human development.

Alexander Luria (1902-1977) < 5
The creator of neuropsychology. Soviet Psychologist who made advances in cognitive psychology, the processes of learning and forgetting, and mental retardation. Charted the way in which damage to specific areas of the brain affect behavior.

Alexei Leont'ev (1904-1979) < 5
Soviet Psychologist who developed his own theory of activity which linked social context to development.

Daniil El'konin (1904-) < 5
Soviet Psychologist who developed cultural-historical activity theory in the field of childhood development.


Western Marxism

As it became clear that the world revolution had not spread beyond Soviet Russia, the Communist Parties still exercised great influence, particularly in the workers movement, but some Marxists turned to the unique problems of fighting capitalism in advanced capitalit countries where revolution was no longer on the immediate agenda.

Georg Lukács (1885-1971) 10+ *
Hungarian philosopher, writer, and literary critic. Commissar for Culture and Education in Hungary's short-lived Socialist government (1919). Helped lead the Hungarian uprising of 1956 against Stalinist repression. Created Marxist theory of aesthetics that opposed political control of artists, defended humanism, elaborated alienation.

Roman Rosdolsky (1898-1967) <5
Polish Marxist political economist.

JBS Haldane (1892-1964) 10+
British geneticist, biometrician, physiologist, and popular advocate of science; “Fellow traveller” of the British CP.

Samezō Kuruma (1893-1982) 5+
Japanese Marxist economist who wrote on the history of political economy and Marx’s theory of crisis and money edited the 15-volume Marx-Lexikon zur Politischen Ökonomie.
Marxism in Japan.

The French Left

Jules de Gaultier (1858-1942) <5
French philosopher.

Jean-Paul Sartre * (1905-1980) 10+
Existentialist philosopher who played an important role in the non-Communist Party Left in post-World War Two France, existentialist, later attracted to Marxism.

Paul Nizan (1905-1940) < 5
French writer and Communist Party militant, friend of Jean-Paul Sartre; resigned CP afer Stalin’s pact with Hitler, killed near Dunkirk in 1940.

Louis Althusser (1918-1990) 10+ *
Criticised Marxism from the standpoint of Structuralism.

Lucien Sève (1926-) < 5
French philosopher, who has written on personality and ethics, member of CC of French Communist Party.

Guy Debord (1931-1994) < 5
Marxist of the 1960s generation who developed ideas about “the society of the spectacle.” Valued by the “Autonomists.”

Benny Lévy (1945-2003) < 5
French Marxist, variously Maoist and follower of Althusser, Trotskyist (Gauche Prolétarienne), Islamist and assistant to Jean-Paul Sartre before returning to the study of the Talmud.
Karl Korsch (1886-1961) 5+
German Left Communist who wrote one of the founding documents of “Western Marxism”, expelled from the Comintern. Became pessimistic about the prospects for socialism by the end of World War Two, but was later to become a supporter of Mao.

The Frankfurt School

Henryk Grossman (1881-1950) < 5
Polish-Jewish Communist, Marxist Political economist.

Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) < 5
Critic of degeneration of art under capitalism

Max Horkheimer (1895-1973) 5+
Long-term leader of the Frankfurt Institute from 1930, theorised Fordist, mass-production society.

Leo Lowenthal (1900-1993) < 5
Philosopher who wrote on literary theory.

Erich Fromm (1900-1980) 5+
German-born U.S. psychoanalyst and social philosopher who explored the interaction between psychology and society. By applying Freudian principles to social problems, Fromm helped show the way to a psychologically balanced, “sane society.”

Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) < 5
Philosopher who studied the effects of mass culture and fascism on European society.

Herbert Marcuse * (1898-1979) 5+
Last member of the original Frankfurt School, reached a broader audience in the 1960s with his critique of “consumer society” and the containment of opposition.

Jürgen Habermas (1929- ) < 5
Leader of second generation of the Frankfurt School, theorised the idea of “networks” as opposed to Party and class, and initiated study of procedural ethics.

The Fourth International


After the victory of Hitler in Germany, Leon Trotsky concluded that the Third International was dead for the purposes of revolution, and launched the Fourth International with his supporters in countries around the world. Trotskyism became an opposition force in the workers' movement everywhere.

James Cannon (1890-1974) 100+ *
American, IWW organiser, later helped create the US Communist Party. In the 1920s became a Trotskyst, and helped create the US Socialist Workers Party.

Pandelis Pouliopoulos (1900-1943) 10+
Greek Trotskyst. Lead mass movements of veterans and defended workers in court. Wrote extensively about Trotsky. Shot dead by fascists while in prison.

Chen Bilan (1901-1971) < 5
Early member of Chinese CP, a founder of Trotskyism in China.

Frank Glass (1901-1988) < 5
South African communist who travelled to China and wrote extensively on China as a Trotskyist.

Max Shachtman (1904-1972) 20+
American Communist Party, then helped create the American Trotskyist movement. Left the SWP and joined the Socialist Party.

James Burnham (1905-1987) 20+
American Trotskyist who broke with Trotsky with a concept of bureaucratic collectivism, later writing about the “managerial revolution.”

George Novack (1905-1992) 10+ *
American Trotskyist and writer on Marxist philosophy.

Felix Morrow (1906-1988) 5+
American Trotskyist, wrote a classic eye-witness history of the Spanish Revolution. After the WWII, understood that Capitalism would recover and dominate the world, and that Socialism had a long struggle ahead.

Joseph Hansen (1910-1979) 10+
A leader of the US SWP 40s-60s, advocate for Cuban revolution.

Harry Braverman (1920-1976) 10+
US Trotskyist in 1930s, editor of Monthly Review Press from 1967.

Walter Held (1910-1941) 5+
German Jew expelled from the Communist Party for supporting Leon Trotsky, fled to France and later Norway he was eventually assassinated by a Stalinist agent.

Pierre Frank (1906-1984) 10+
French Trotskyist, a founder of the International Left Opposition in 1928, later a leader of the LCR.

Michel Pablo (1911-1996) 5+
International Secretary of Fourth International after WWII. Minister in Ben Bella's Socialist government of Algeria. Developed theory of "centuries of deformed workers states".

David Korner (Barta) (1914-1976)5+
Romanian trotskyist, active in France from 1936. In 1939, he broke with the IVth International groupings in France and founded the "Groupe Communiste (IVéme Internationale), latter renamed "Union Communiste (Trotskyste)". Today's "Lutte Ouvriére" group claims to stand in the continuity of Barta's UC(T).

Hal Draper (1914-1990) 20+ *
American Marxist, journalist and labor activist. Founder of the Socialist Workers Party & Fourth International in 1938, later founded the International Socialist party. Stopped associating with Trotskyism after the 1960s.
Ted Grant (1913-2006) 100+ *
South African-born British Trotskyist, a founder and long-term leader in the “Militant Tendency” within the Labour Party until expelled from the Labour Party in 1983, and after.

Grandizo Munis (1912-1989) 10+
Spanish Trotskyist.

Pierre Broué (1926-2005) 5+
French Trotskyist leader and historian.

Abram Leon (1918-1944) < 5
Jewish socialist and Historian, became a leading Belgian Trotskyist during World War II.

Ernest Mandel (1923-1995) 100+ *
Belgian Trotskyist founder and leader of United Secretariat of the Fourth Intenrational, renowned as Marxist Economist.

Nahuel Moreno (1924-1987) < 5
Argentinian Trotskyist. Leader of the Liga Internacional de Trabajadores (LIT), and of Movement for Socialism (MAS) in Argentina, among the largest revolutionary currents in Latin America which remained oriented to the urban working class after the Cuban Revolution, and opposed guerillaism.

International Socialist Tendency

Tony CliffJust as it became necessary to discard the slogan of the ‘democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and peasantry’ after the Bolshevik Party had existed for 14 years, so has it now become necessary to renounce the theory of Russia as a degenerated workers’ state.”

Tony Cliff (1917-2000) 50+ *
Palestinian Jewish Trotskyist, developed critique of Stalinist Russia as a form of "bureaucratic state capitalism", laid the basis of the theory of 'deflected' permanent revolution and the 'permanent' arms economy, founder of International Socialist Tendency.

Duncan Hallas (1925-2002) 40+
British Trotskyist, founder member of the International Socialist Tendency and leader of the British Socialist Workers Party.

Michael Kidron (1930-2003) 10+
A leading theoretician of the British Socialist Review Group and its successor, the International Socialists; also an editor of several publications including Pluto Press.

Jim Higgins (1930-2002) 10+
British postal worker and trade unionist, a founder of the ISO.

Peter Sedgwick (1934-1983) 50+
Theorist of the British ISO in the 1950s, translator and editor of Victor Serge.

Paul Foot (1937-2004) 100+
Trotskyist and prominent investigative journalist in Britain, member of International Socialists.

Chris Harman (1942-2009) 10+
British activist, journalist and historian.

David Widgery (1947-1992) 10+
British cultural critic, anti-fascist agitator and Marxist writer.

Geoff Pilling (1940-1997) < 5
British Trotskyist, economist.

See also: Leon Trotsky, Hal Draper, Evelyn Reed and others.

Paul Mattick

Left Communism

A number of Marxists, especially in Europe and the US, not only rejected Stalinism, but rejected the whole project of building socialism through state power. These were Marxists, not Anarchists, and they remain a force to this day.

Herman Gorter (1864-1927) < 5
Dutch socialist and poet, opposed WWI, became an advocate of ultra-left within Comintern. Expelled from Communist Party.

Anton Pannekoek (1873-1960) 30+
Dutch astonomer. Helped form a Marxist party in the Netherlands. Member of the German Social Democratic party.

Cajo Brendel (1915-2007) < 5
Dutch Left Communist. A central figure in the Council Communists movement (second-generation) and a Pannekoek sympathiser.

Otto Rühle (1874-1943) 5+
German Left Communist who voted with Karl Liebknecht against the war credits and was a founding member of the German Communist Party.

Eugene Lanti (1879-1947) < 5
French supporter of Esperanto and anti-nationalism.

John Keracher (1880-1958) < 5
Scottish American socialist educator, founding member of the CPUSA, and later the Proletarian Party. Keracher was also a journalist and agitator.

Sylvia Pankhurst (1882-1960) < 5
British Left-Communist and Suffragette.

Amadeo Bordiga (1889-1970) 5+
Italian Communist, was expelled from Comintern as an ultra-left, later leading an independent Marxist Party in Italy.

Jacques Camatte ( ) 5+
French political economist, follower of Bordiga.

Marceau Pivert (1895-1958) < 5
French communist, trade unionist and anti-militarist.

Paul Mattick * (1903-1942) 60+
German Left Communist, later lived in the U.S.. Main exponent of “Council Communism” and opponent of idea of Revolution being led by a political party.

Arrigo Cervetto (1927-1995) < 5
Italian Marxist, active in trade unions after WW2, built Lotta Comunista, an independent communist current in Italy.


Marxist Humanism

Although Marxist Humanism first appeared as a break-away form orthodox Trotskyism, in the 1960s many intellectuals in Eastern Europe and in the Communist Parties in Britain and the US, embraced a Humanist Marxism, emphasising human agency, rather than structural determinism and “iron laws of history” and so on.

CLR James * (1901-1989) 30+
West Indian, Afro Caribbean. Lucid dialectician, historian, novelist, & playwright. Stressed the importance of non-white workers to the revolutionary movement, foresaw the civil rights movement decades before it got underway.

Raya Dunayevskaya (1910-1987) 30+
American Russian Trotskyst, Humanist. Secretary to Trotsky, translated many Marx, Engels and Lenin. Critiqued Lenin's theory of the Party being the vanguard.

Martin Glaberman (1918-2001) 20+
American autoworker and life-long supporter of Raya Dunayevskaya and C L R James.

Maurice Brinton (1923-2005) 15+
British libertarian socialist, prominent neurologist and the intellectual leader of Solidarity (U.K.).

C. Wright Mills
It is with this problem of agency in mind that I have been studying, for several years now, the cultural apparatus, the intellectuals — as a possible, immediate, radical agency of change.” [C. Wright Mills, 1962]

C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) < 5
American Communist, initiated the “New Left” in the U.S.

Z. A. Jordan (d. 1978) < 5
Polish Marxist Philosopher.
Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997) < 5
Greek philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. Co-founder of the Socialisme ou Barbarie group.

Maximilien Rubel (1905-1996) < 5
French sociologist, Marxist humanist and with T.B. Bottomore, a prolific publisher and translator.

Sebastiano Timpanaro (1923-2000) < 5
Italian philologist, philosopher and Marxist.

E P Thompson (1924-1993) < 5
English Marxist historian and humanist.

Joe McCarney (1941-2007) < 5
English Hegelian-Marxist.

Eugene Kamenka (1928-1995) < 5
Australian Marxist, elaborated ethical foundations of Marxism.

The Praxis Group

Rudi Supek (1913-1993) < 5
Croatian Marxist sociologist, Marxist Humanist, in Praxis group.

Gajo Petrović (1927-1993) < 5
Marxist Humanist, one of the main theorists in the Praxis Group and long-time editor of the journal Praxis.

Mihailo Marković (1927-) < 5
Serbian Marxist philosopher, one of the first and fiercest critics of the Stalinist philosophical theses in Yugoslavia, led return to study of Marx’s critical method in the mid-1960s.

—— Market Socialists / Workers’ Self-Management ——

Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997)
Former longstanding leader of the Chinese Communist Party; purged as a “capitalist roader” during the Cultural Revolution, but returned to power after Mao's death and led the gradual return of China to capitalism.

Branko Pribicevic (1928-2003) < 5
Political scientist, member of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia.
Ota Šik (1919-2004)
Czech dissident who became Deputy Prime Minister during the “Prague Spring” advocating a “Third Way” between capitalism and communism; in exile, became more of a social democrat of the Western variety.

See also Eurocommunism by Manuel Azcárate.

—— New Worker / Communist Currents ——

Mansoor Hekmat (1951-2002) < 5
Iranian Marxist. Conducted party building for the workers' movements in Iran and Iraq, specifically the Worker-Communist Party of Iran.

Filemon Lagman (1953-2001) < 5
Phillipino Communist. Led the split in the Communist Party of the Philippines in 1991 over strategy of guerilla warfare. Advocated the orientation to the workers movement, combining parliamentary and extra-parliamentary means of struggle.

—— The Latin American Left ——

Salvadore Allende (1908-1973)
Leader of the Chilean Socialist Party and President of Chile in 1973, when he was overthrown by a US-organised coup.

Che Guevara

Guerilla Marxism

Some Marxists, in countries where open political debate was impossible, turned instead to military struggle as a form of political organisation, retiring to the countryside and basing themselves on the peasantry, rather than the urban working class.

Che Guevara (1928-1967) 10+ *
International Revolutionary. Helped create and maintain the Cuban Revolution. Creatively tried to establish socialism in Cuba, worked tirelessly to create revolutions throughout Africa and South America. Created the guerilla foco theory – building a revolutionary movement through militant resistance instead of party building.

The road is long and, in part, unknown. We recognize our limitations. We will make the human being of the 21st century – we, ourselves.” [Che Guevara]

Carlos Marighella (1911-1969) < 5
A Brazillian revolutionary who led the National Liberation Action (ALN). His tactics inspired the Italian Red Brigades, the German Red Army Faction. Expelled from the Brazilian Communist Party for “pro-Cuban” sympathy. Executed by police.

Schafik Jorge Handal (1930-2006) < 5
General Secretary of the Communist Party of El Salvador, and guerrilla commander in the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) in the 1980s.



In the early 1960s, divisions opened up within the Comintern, with a current sympathetic to the Mao Zedong, as opposed to the Soviet leader Khrushchev, developing a distinct philosophical and political line, emphasising the role of the peasantry.

Mao Zedong * (1893-1976) 100+
Became leader of the Chinese Communist Party during the Long March in 1937, and led China to its Revolution in 1949 and remained its supreme leader until his death in 1976.

Lin Biao (1907-1971)
Firm supporter of Mao during the Cultural Revolution, leader of the Red Army.

Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) 10+
Most respected of the old generation of leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.

Peng Zhen (1902-1997)
Longstanding leader of the Chinese Communist Party; denounced during the Cultural Revolution, but survived and returned to leadership, as one who opposed restoration of the market.

MaoThe revolutionary war is a war of the masses; only mobilizing the masses and relying on them can wage it.

Shibdas Ghosh (1923-1976) 5+
A founder of the Marxist-Leninist Socialist Unity Centre of India.

Zhu De (1886-1976)
Longstanding leader of the CCP, denounced during the Cultural Revolution but later rehabilitated.

Li Lisan (1899-1967) < 5
Early leader of Chinese CP, regarded as ultra-leftist, denounced during Cultural Revolution, and committed suicide.

Liu Shaoqi (1902-1969) 10+
Longstanding leader of the Chinese Communist Party who was denounced during the Cultural Revolution as a “capitaist roader” and died in prison.

Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005)
Part of the core leadership of China's Cultural Revolution. Worked closely with Mao's wife, Jiang Qing.

Hua Guofeng (1920- )
Led China after the Cultural Revolution after out-manoeuvering “Gang of Four” in a power struggle later in 1976. Deng Xiaoping's policies of reform began to take shape during Hua's tenure, and by 1980, leadership had shifted to Deng. Hua remains a member of the CC.


Charu Mazumdar (1918-1972) 20+
A founder of the pro-Chinese Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), died in police custody.

Vinod Mishra (1947-1998) 10+
Longstanding leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation.

Ho Chi Minh

National Liberation

Particularly in the decades after the end of World War Two, communists were in the leadership of national liberation struggles, the leaders of these struggles developed a distinct approach to socialist theory.

Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) 30+
Longstanding leader of the Vietnamese national liberation movement; set-up a guerilla base in the countryside in 1944, going on to defeat the French in 1954, but dying before final victory over the US invasion in 1975.

Pham Van Dong (1906-2000) < 5
Leader of the Vietnamee Army in the wars against both the French colonial forces and the US invaders. Foremost theorist of protracted warfare.

Le Duan (1908-1986) 5+
Led Communist forces in South Vietnam after French withdrawal in 1954 and was First Secretary of North Vietnam Communist Party from 1959. After Ho Chi Minh’s death in 1969, became Party leader.

Kim Il Sung (1912-1994) 5+
Founding head of state of Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Bhagat Singh (1907-1931) 10+
Leader of the militant and socialist wing of the Independence Movement in India; hanged by the British in 1931.

Marxism and Anti-Imperialism in India.

George Padmore (1902-1959) 30+ *
West Indian, CPUSA and Comintern 1927-1935, became leading advocate of Pan-Africanism.

Harry Haywood (1898-1985) <5
Leader of CPUSA and Comintern. Supported Mao and was expelled from the CPUSA.
Lu Xun (1881-1936) 20+
One of modern China’s most prominent and influential writers. His work frequently promoted radical change through criticism of antiquated cultural values and repressive social customs.

Messali Hadj (1898-1974) 5+
Algerian communist and founder of the modern Algerian nationalist movement; supporter of the Russian Revolution.

Frantz Fanon
A national culture under colonial domination is a contested culture whose destruction is sought in systematic fashion. It very quickly becomes a culture condemned to secrecy.

Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) < 5
West Indian-born, French/Algerian doctor and intellectual whose works addressed the problems of developing national consciousness in the oppressed people, an inspiration for the US Civil Rights movement as much as in Black Africa.

Paulo Friere (1921-1997) < 5
Brazilian educator, member of the Workers' Party.

Fidel Castro * (1927- ) 10+
Leader of the Cuban Revolution and President of Cuban Republic.
Cuban History Archive.


African Liberation Movement

The struggle against colonialism in Africa, to create independent socialist states, brought forward several generations of heoric fighters, who contributed to the development of Marxist ideas.

Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972) < 5
Nkrumah was the force behind the movement for independence of Ghana, then British West Africa, first president of independent Ghana in 1957. His 1965 “Neocolonialism, the last stage of imperialism,” introduced the concept of “neocolonialism.”

Govan Mbeki (1910-2001) < 5
Life-long activist for the African National Congress and the South African Communist Party.

Brian Bunting (1920- ) < 5
Journalist, Cental Committee member of the South African CP, ‘natives representative’ in Parliament before being banned, and fleeing to Britain.

Joe Slovo (1926-1995) < 5
Leader of the South African Communist Party in 1991 till his death in 1995, leading SACP after the collapse of the USSR, to the final overthrow of apartheid.

Baruch Hirson (1921-1999) < 5
South African Trotskyist. Organiser for Workers International League, participated in the armed struggle, imprisoned, but went into exile in 1973.

Julius Nyerere (1922-1999) < 5
Pan-Africanist, socialist and leader of Tanzanian independence struggle and its first President.

Amilcar Cabral (1924-1973) < 5
Lead of independence struggle in Guinea-Bissau, assassinated by Portuguese agents.

Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961) < 5
Leader of independence movement in the Congo, executed by Belgian colonial police, despite U.N. calls for his release.

George Padmore

Black Liberation

From the 18th century up to the present people of colour have resisted oppression by white capitalist powers and have developed a distinct current of revolutionary socialist thinking.

Toussaint Louverture (1743-1803) 10+
The “Black Jacobin” who led a slave rebellion in Haiti in 1800 and created the first Black Republic, inspired by the French Revolution.

Malcolm XI don't believe in fighting today in any one front, but on all fronts. In fact I'm a Black Nationalist Freedom Fighter. Islam is my religion, but I believe my religion is my personal buisness.... The economic philosophy of Black Nationalism only means that we should own and operate and control the economy of our community.

John Brown (1800-1859) 5+
American slave-abolitionist who aimed to build an emancipation army, hanged after a shoot-out with Robert E. Lee.

Malcolm X * (1925-1965) 5+ (audio)
US Black Muslim leader, assassinated in 1965.

Black Panther Party

See Also: George Padmore, C.L.R. James, Frantz Fanon and Angela Davis.


The French Revolution

The leaders of the French Revolution were the first to develop modern social theory and laid the basis for the modern socialism. Rousseau traced the origins of inequality to private property, and Babeuf is credited with being the first Communist. The socialist ideas from the French Revolution are one of the sources of Marxism.

Julien La Mettrie (1709-1751) 5+
Militant atheist.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
It has been said that the French Revolution, put Rousseau's philosophy into practice, in particular his idea of the Social Contract. Although he died 20 years before the Revolution, he was its principle theorist.

Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793) 10+
Leader of the left wing of the Revolution, inspired the execution of royalist prisoners which launched the second, radical phase of the Revolution; his murder set off the Great Terror.

Robespierre (1758-1794) 10+
Leader of the Jacobins and instigator of the Great Terror, Robespierre was the ultimate “moralist.” His overthrow marked the end of the radical phase of the Revolution.
Jacques Roux (17??-1794) 5+
Priest who became a leader of the popular democratic Enragés during the French Revolution. He was renowned for the foul and abusive language of his journalism.

Jacques Hébert (1757-1794) 5+
Leader of the extreme left-wing during the Revolution and spokesperson of the sans coulottes. Hébert initiated a planned economy before his overthrow, after which the Revolution lost the support of the poor.

Holbach (1723-1789) 5+
French materialist and atheistic philosopher.

Gracchus Babeuf * (1760-1797) 5+
Rose to prominence in the twilight of the Revolution, convening a running public forum organising for more radical measures. He can be regarded as the first communist and an advocate of popular sovereignty and participatory democracy.
Auguste Blanqui * (1805-1881) 20+
Founder of the communist movement in the 1830s, he believed communism could be achieved by the dictatorship of a radical minority. He was immensely popular in France and elsewhere but spent most of his days in prison.

BlanquiIt is my duty as a proletarian, deprived of all the rights of the city, to reject the competence of a court where only the privileged classes who are not my peers sit in judgment over me.

Félix Pyat (1810-1889)
Veteran of the Revolution of 1848 and a leader of the left-wing of the Paris Commune.

General Boulanger (1837-1891) <5
Populist French military leader.
The Paris Commune

Jules Vallès (1832-1885) 5+
Agitator, editor of Le Cri du Peuple.

Henri Rochefort (1831-1913)
Journalist, deputy to Government of National Defence for Paris.

Louise Michel (1830-1905)
Nurse, soldier, hero of the Commune and labour organiser.

New Lanark

Utopian Socialism

Visions of a better society have been a concern of thinkers since ancient times, and a part of the critique of existing conditions. The speculations of the early 19th century Utopians are an important contribution to Marxism. Fourier and Owen in particular were much admired by Marx and Engels.

Thomas More (1478-1535)
Thomas More wrote Utopia in 1515, looking forward to a world of individual freedom and equality governed by Reason, at a time when such a vision was almost inconceivable.

James Harrington (1611-1677)
Common-Wealth of Oceana was based on universal land-ownership and was a militant republic dedicated to spreading its democratic system to the rest of the world. Cromwell banned it.

Morelly (17??-17??)
Little is known of Morelly; Code of Nature was an attempt to provide a systematic philosophical justification of his communist ideas.

Saint-Simon (1760-1825)
French Utopian socialist who took part in War of Independence of the United States; opposed Deism and promoted the study of Nature.
Charles Fourier * (1772-1837)
French Utopian socialist who criticised the bourgeois society established by the French Revolution. He promoted the role of environment and education in moulding personality.

Robert Owen * (1771-1851)
Welsh industrialist and social reformer; formed a model industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland, and pioneered cooperative societies.

Étienne Cabet (1788-1856)
His followers, known as the Icarians, established ill-fated utopian communities in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and California.

Edward Bellamy (1850-1898)
American author, famous for his utopian novel set in the year 2000, Looking Backward, published in 1888.

Anarchist Flag


Anarchism is a political current that has existed in the working class movement from its beginning and was an important component of the First International, but parted company with Marxism in the late 19th century.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon * (1809-1865) 5+
Founding theorist of anarchism, advocated cooperative society.

Petr Kropotkin (1842-1921) 10+
Leader of Russian Anarchism.

Ravachol (1859-1892)
Radical French anarchist.

Zo d’Axa (1864-1930) 5+
Radical French anarchist.

Georges Etiévant (1865-) <5
French anarchist.

Bernard Lazare (1865-1903) 5+
French anarchist and militant opponent of anti-Semitism.

Emile Henry (1872-1894) <5
Radical French anarchist.

Libertad (1872-1894) 5+
French individualist anarchist.

Georges Palante (1862-1925) 5+
French individualist anarchist.

Mother Jones
The rank and file have let their servants become their masters and dictators. The workers have now to fight not alone their exploiters but likewise their own leaders, who often betray them, who sell them out.” [Mother Jones]

Mikhail Bakunin * (1814-1876) 50+
Russian nobleman who advocated revolutionary anarchism; participant in the First International winning leadership of a significant section of the International in the 1870s.

James Guillaume (1844-1916)
Biographer of Bakunin and theorist for anarcho-syndicalism.

Errico Malatesta (1853-1932) 20+
Leader of Italian anarchism, anarcho-syndicalist.

Nestor Makhno (1884-1934) 20+
Leader of anarchist forces during the Wars of Intervention after the Russian Revolution.

Emma Goldman * (1869-1940) 20+
American anarchist and writer, deported to the Soviet Union, fought in Spanish Civil War.

Rudolf Rocker (1873-1958) 5+
German anarcho-syndicalist, worked in Jewish anarchist movement in London before going to New York.

Mother Jones (1830-1930)
Prolific and legendary American labor organiser.

Fredy Perlman (1934-1985) 5+
Czech anarchist writer and musician, emigrated to the U.S.

Emmeline Pankhurst George Sand


From the 18th century up to the present, women fighting against their oppression by patriarchal structures have developed political science, ethics and critical philosophy and contributed to the development of revolutionary theory. Many were Marxists.

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
English radical who was the first woman to systematically enquire into the causes of women's oppression.
[Full Biography]

Harriet Taylor (1856-1915)
Friend of John Stuart Mill, and her work was published under his name, one of the earliest arguments for the emancipation of women, in the tradition of classical liberalism.
[Full Biography]

Olive Schreiner (1855-1920)
South African-born, British socialist and novellist.
[Full Biography]

Lena Morrow Lewis (1862-1950)
American socialist and union organiser.
[Full Biography]

Vida Goldstein (1869-1949)
Australian suffragette, feminist and anti-militarist.
[Full Biography]

Clara Zetkin

There is a women’s question for the women of the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the intelligentsia and the Upper Ten Thousand. It assumes a different form according to the class situation of each one of these strata.” [Clara Zetkin]

Mary Beard (1876-1958)
American socialist and historian.
[Full Biography]

See Also: Sylvia Pankhurst, Clara Zetkin, Eleanor Marx, Dora Montefiore, Alexandra Kollontai.

Evelyn Reed Evelyn Reed (1905-1979) 10+ *
Member of the American Trotskyist movement, socialist feminist, was one of the first to challenge anthropological and other spurious justifications for patriarchy.
[Full Biography]
Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) *
Author of The Second Sex, the most significant review of approaches to the critique of women's role in history and modern society. De Beauvoir was an Existentialist.
[Full Biography]

Betty Friedan (1921-2006)
Psychologist, a student of Kurt Koffka, who criticised Freudian psychoanalysis for its rationalisation of sexist attitudes; exposed the deep crisis affecting American housewives, excluded from the workforce and confined to housework.
[Full Biography]

Clara Fraser (1923-1998)
Socialist-feminist, founder of Freedom Socialist Party in Seattle.

Kate Millett Kate Millett * (1934-)
Radical Feminist, who argued for the expansion of the conceptions of historical materialism to include the processes of domestic labour and reproduction. May have coined the word “sexism.”
[Full Biography]

Germaine Greer (1939-)
Australian Radical Feminist
[Full Biography]

Juliet Mitchell (1940-)
New Zealand-born, British feminist who endeavoured to reconcile feminism with psychoanalysis.
[Full Biography]

Barbara Ehrenreich (1941-)
American Socialist feminist and journalist.
[Full Biography]

Sheila Rowbotham (1943-)
British socialist feminist; wrote for the Trotskyist ‘Black Dwarf’ before publishing ‘Women’s Liberation and the New Politics’ arguing that women were oppressed in cultural as well as economic terms. A pioneer of women’s history.
[Full Biography]

Angela Davis (1944-)
A member of the CPUSA for some time, Davis is a supporter of Cuba and an active campaigner for radical alternatives to prison. Her criticisms of the exclusive focus of the modern women's movement on the concerns of middle-class white women was influential.
[Full Biography]
Shulamith Firestone (1945-)
Radical feminist who argued that the concept of class should be expanded to encompass the notion of women as a sex-class, and thus utilise the ideas of Marxism and class struggle to understand the nature of women's oppression.
[Full Biography]

Marlene Dixon ( )
Socialist Feminist who argued both against the overreaction of feminists against socialism and the antipathy of socialists to feminism.

Dale Spender (1943- )
Historian who has contributed to uncovering the role of women in history, and analysed the historical development of the women's movement itself.
[Full Biography]

Lynn Beaton (1947-)
Australian Marxist and feminist, worked at the Working Women's Centre at the ACTU and researched the socialisation of women's labour.

Teresa Ebert ( )
Argues for a feminism based on historical materialism, against the postmodern feminism of people like Judith Butler, which she calls “ludic feminism.”
[Terea Ebert home page]

Juliet Mitchell Linda Nicholson ( )
Historian who has contributed to uncovering the role of women in history, and analysed the historical development of the women's movement itself.
[Full Biography]

Drucilla Cornell ( )
American “Ethical feminist,” professor of political science, women's studies, and comparative literature at Rutgers University.
[Feminist Theory Website]

Laura Limpus ( )

Jack London

Socialist Populists and Journalists

Some writers have advocated the overthrow of capitalism or were outspoken supporters of the Soviet Union, but did not see themselves as Marxists, or may have combined reactionary “populist” rhetoric with calls for socialism. Some writers have contributed to the development of socialism simply by reporting on its struggles in their professional capacity as journalists, often eye-witnesses to revolutionary struggles, although not themselves participants.

Henry Noel Brailsford (1873-1958)
Left-wing British journalist who visited and publicsed the achievements of the Soviets.

Anna Louise StrongSomething new was being created. Something that had never been before in human history. I wanted to have a share in it, I wanted at least to understand it. Was it only the comradeship and joy of battle that always come to compensate for bitter times of struggle? Or was it really something new in the world!

Mary Heaton Vorse (1874-1966)
American radical journalist of the 1920s and 1930s.

Jack London (1876-1916)
American novelist, and populist socialist.

Helen Keller (1880-1968) 5+
Keller was deaf and blind but became renowned for her abilities. She was a firm supporter of the Russian Revolution and the IWW.

Athur Ransome (1884-1967)
British journalist and writer who visited the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik revolution.

William Chamberlin (1897-1969)
Journalist for the Christian Science Monitor, who visited the Soviet Union after the Revolution; provided information to US intelligence.
Anna Louise Strong (1885-1970) 5+
American Progressive journalist who reported on revolutions from Russia to Spain to China, a unique source of sympathetic views for American workers.

Mark Starr (1894-1985)
British labour educator, historian and proponent of Esperanto. Joined the Labour Party after a time in the CPGB.

Paul Robeson (1898-1976)
African-American Marxist and world-renowned singer and civil rights and anticolonialist fighter.

James T. Farrell (1902-1979)
Irish-American novelist, at one time a Trotskyist.

George Orwell (1903-1950)
British dystopian novelist, fought with Republicans in Spain, became anti-Stalinist, worked with the I.L.P.

Alice Field (1905-1960)
Sociologist who studied the benefits to families and children of the policies of the Soviet Union towards women.

Harold Isaacs (1910-1986)
American journalist who witnessed and chronicled the “Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution.”

Peter Fryer (1927-2006)
Correspondent of the British CP who witnessed the “Hungarian Tragedy” in 1956.

Tom Paine

Foundations of Political Science

The history of political science is inseparable from the art of war and the problems of philosophy, and there is a long history to discussion of the problems of modern political theory. These writers are the pioneers of political science and revolutionary theory.

Sun-Tzu (c 420 BCE)
Ancient Chinese philosopher, author of The Art of War, which sums up the wisdom of centuries of Chinese political experience.

Nicolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
15th century Italian civil servant who put in writing the political methods of Renaissance Europe.

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
English philosopher and political theorist of the state.

Gerrard Winstanley * (1609-1660)
A leader of the True Levellers in the English Revolution of 1648.

John Locke (1632-1704)
English Empiricist who was the main theorist of the development of bourgeois political institutions in Britain.

Mary WollstonecraftIn tracing the causes that have degraded woman, I have confined my observations to such as universally act upon the morals and manners of the whole sex, ... I only contend that the men who have been placed in similar situations have acquired a similar character.

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
English democratic and Deist journalist who formulated the concepts of civil liberty behind the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. Author of The Rights of Man.

General Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831)
Prussian military theorist admired by Marx, Engels and Lenin.

Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)
French diplomat who studied the development of democratic forms of society in America.

Moses Hess (1812-1875)
Leader of True Socialism, early associate of Marx.

George Washington Plunkett (1842-1924)
A leader of Tammany Hall, the corrupt local government group in 19th century New York.

Childe (1892-1957)
Early 20th century Australian Labor Party official.



The Value_of_Knowledge archive includes classic works by over 140 writers from the Copernican Revolution up to the present time, centred on problems in the epistemology, the theory of knowledge.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Founder of British Empiricism.

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Founder of French Rationalism.

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
French materialist philosopher.

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
English poet and revolutionary-atheist.

G W F Hegel * (1770-1831) 50+
The greatest philosopher of “German Idealism,” theorist of modern dialectics and the most important influence on Marx and Engels and essential to Marxism.

HegelThe history of philosophy deals not with a past, but with an eternal and veritable present: and resembles not a museum of the aberrations of the human intellect, but a Pantheon of godlike figures, one after another in dialectical development.

Cyril Smith
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Founder of Positivism, an early advocate of the emancipation of women.

Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872)
German philosopher, materialist and atheist critic of Hegel, and an influence on the young Marx in the 1840s.

JB Baillie (18??-19??)
Scottish Hegelian, translator.

John McTaggart (1856-1925)
British Hegelian, principal translator and advocate for Hegel in the English langauge. Later abandoned Hegelianism.

GW Cunningham (1881-1968)
American Hegelian, Cornell University.

Rebecca Cooper
American Hegelian, University of Washington.

Benedetto Croce (1866-1952)
Important Italian Hegelian and socialist philosopher, one of the early advocates of Marxism in Italy, but became a reformist.

Max Weber (1864-1920)
German sociologist and political economist best known for his thesis of the “Protestant Ethic”; an early proponent of positivist sociology and historiography, theorised “status order” rather than class. Regarded by many as the main alternative to Marx; developed the concept of “ideal types.”

Marxism and Philosophy

Liberation Epistemology
Recent Marxism
Ancient Dialectics
Lao Tzu *
(c. 500 BCE)
The Tao Te Ching is one of the first and finest examples in human history of the dialectical method of reasoning, here used towards a moral end.

Simone de BeauvoirHumanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being.

Marxism and Ethics

Classics of Ethics
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 10+
Founder of German Idealism whose works remain the foundations of secular Ethics.

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
American liberal and romantic writer.

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
German ethicist and existentialist philosopher.

Jean-Marie Guyau (1854-1888)
German ethicist and existentialist philosopher.

See Also: Robespierre, Simone de Beauvoir, Eugene Kamenka.

Political Economy

Political Economy

Political Economy grew out of moral philosophy in the late 18th century as a new and distinct branch of science, dedicated to understanding how people can live. The critical study of the political economists absorbed much of Karl Marx's life.

Adam Smith * (1723-1790)
Originally a moral philosopher, became the greatest of the British political economists; first to develop a labour theory of value.

Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
British political economists who theorised economic basis for development of society, and infamous for his reactionary theory of population.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
Contemporary and opponent of Karl Marx, English liberal theorist, early positivist and a Utilitarian in ethics.

Marxist Political Economy 1887-1995

Bernice Shoul (1920-1977)
U.S. Marxist Political Economist.
Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)
American management theorist who invented “scientific management.”

John Hobson (1858-1940) 15+
English, socialist economist who was a major theorist of imperialism, was somewhat of a centrist in politics.

J. M. Keynes * (1883-1946)
British political economist who developed the theory of the welfare state & macroeconomic control of unemployment by public spending.
Classics of Political Economy 1673-1936

John Maynard Keynes “The effect of combination on the part of a group of workers is to protect their relative real wage. The general level of real wages depends on the other forces of the economic system.”


Natural Science

Marxists have always taken a keen interest in the development of the natural and social sciences and the philosophical problems arising out of science. Even scientists who have had conservative political views have contributed to revolutionary ideas.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
English biologist who formulated the idea of evolution of species by natural selection.

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
Anthropologist who formulated the idea of development of human society through definite stages corresponding to evolution of the forces of production.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
Discoverer of Theory of Relativity and the Quantum nature of energy; devoted his life to fight for peace and world government.

Foundations of Mathematics

Epistemology & Modern Physics

Classics in Psychology (1874-1989)

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